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An Investigation of the Critical Events and Influential Factors to the Evolution of the U.S. Man and the Biosphere Program
20. Januar 2018
Abstract The UNESCO Man and the Biosphere program has operated for 45 years as an international program that started in the 1970s to conserve biotic communities and provide areas for research, education, and training. The program later evolved in the 1990s to address social and environmental issues in a sustainable manner across a landscape. This program was one of the first efforts that recognized the importance of working beyond park and protected area boundaries and the need to sustain livelihoods as much as the resources. In the MAB program's infancy, the United...
How Participatory Should Environmental Governance Be? Testing the Applicability of the Vroom-Yetton-Jago Model in Public Environmental Decision-Making
13. Januar 2018
Abstract Public participation is potentially useful to improve public environmental decision-making and management processes. In corporate management, the Vroom-Yetton-Jago normative decision-making model has served as a tool to help managers choose appropriate degrees of subordinate participation for effective decision-making given varying decision-making contexts. But does the model recommend participatory mechanisms that would actually benefit environmental management? This study empirically tests the improved Vroom-Jago version of the model in the public environmental...
River Continuity Restoration and Diadromous Fishes: Much More than an Ecological Issue
12. Januar 2018
Abstract Ecosystem fragmentation is a serious threat to biodiversity and one of the main challenges in ecosystem restoration. River continuity restoration (RCR) has often targeted diadromous fishes, a group of species supporting strong cultural and economic values and especially sensitive to river fragmentation. Yet it has frequently produced mixed results and diadromous fishes remain at very low levels of abundance. Against this background, this paper presents the main challenges for defining, evaluating and achieving effective RCR. We first identify challenges specific...
Environmental Performance Information Use by Conservation Agency Staff
12. Januar 2018
Abstract Performance-based conservation has long been recognized as crucial to improving program effectiveness, particularly when environmental conditions are dynamic. Yet few studies have investigated the use of environmental performance information by staff of conservation organizations. This article identifies attitudinal, policy and organizational factors influencing the use of a type of performance information—water quality information—by Soil and Water Conservation District staff in the Upper Mississippi River Basin region. An online survey (n = 277...
Determination of Appropriate Service Delivery Level for Quantitative Attributes of Household Toilets in Rural Settlements of India from Users’ Perspective
12. Januar 2018
Abstract Improvement of quality of sanitation services in rural settlements is an important development goal in developing countries including India and accordingly several strategies are adopted which promote the demand and use of household toilets through creating awareness and providing subsidies to poor people for construction of household toilets with service-level standards specified from experts’ perspective. In many cases, users are unsatisfied with the quality of toilets constructed using subsidies and the same remain unused. Users’ satisfaction depends on...
The Irrigation Effect: How River Regulation Can Promote Some Riparian Vegetation
11. Januar 2018
Abstract River regulation impacts riparian ecosystems by altering the hydrogeomorphic conditions that support streamside vegetation. Obligate riparian plants are often negatively impacted since they are ecological specialists with particular instream flow requirements. Conversely, facultative riparian plants are generalists and may be less vulnerable to river regulation, and could benefit from augmented flows that reduce drought stress during hot and dry periods. To consider this ‘irrigation effect’ we studied the facultative shrub, netleaf hackberry (Celtis...
Correction to: Satellite Images Combined with Field Data Reveal Negative Changes in the Distribution of Babassu Palms after Clearing off Amazonian Forests
09. Januar 2018
The original article has been corrected.
The Governance of Indigenous Natural Products in Namibia: A Policy Network Analysis
09. Januar 2018
Abstract At the end of the 20th century, optimism existed that non-timber forest products (NTFPs) can form an integral part in conservation and development strategies. However, there is limited knowledge on how the different stakeholders could relate to the state or to each other in promoting commercialization of NTFPs. Applying the policy network as an analytical framework, we investigated the structural patterns of actor relations in the governance structure of indigenous natural products (INPs) in Namibia, to understand the implications of such relations on INP policy...
Coexistence with Large Carnivores Supported by a Predator-Compensation Program
09. Januar 2018
Abstract Compensation programs are used globally to increase tolerance for and help offset economic loss caused by large carnivores. Compensation program funding comes from a variety of sources, and in Wyoming and Idaho, USA and Alberta, Canada this includes revenue from hunting and fishing license sales. We review the patterns of livestock depredation and compensation costs of Alberta’s predator-compensation program, and compare Alberta’s program to compensation programs in neighboring Canadian and American jurisdictions. Current compensation costs in Alberta are...
Interpretations of Resilience and Change and The Catalytic Roles of Media: A Case of Canadian Daily Newspaper Discourse on Natural Disasters
06. Januar 2018
Abstract The varied interpretations of the concept of resilience in natural hazards research literature has attracted numerous criticisms. A common criticism centers around a poor understanding of the changes caused by natural disasters by the research stream. Considering resilience as a metaphor of change, and newspaper as a catalyst that often highlights post-disaster opportunities for “forward looking” (rather than bouncing back) changes, we examined some specific aspects of change in Canadian communities by analyzing coverage of natural disasters in daily...
Estimating the Creation and Removal Date of Fracking Ponds Using Trend Analysis of Landsat Imagery
05. Januar 2018
Abstract Hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, is a process of introducing liquid at high pressure to create fractures in shale rock formations, thus releasing natural gas. Flowback and produced water from fracking operations is typically stored in temporary open-air earthen impoundments, or frack ponds. Unfortunately, in the United States there is no public record of the location of impoundments, or the dates that impoundments are created or removed. In this study we use a dataset of drilling-related impoundments in Pennsylvania identified through the FrackFinder project led...
Development of a Procedure for Evaluating the Impacts of the Accidental Emission of Hazardous Chemicals, Case Study in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
04. Januar 2018
Abstract The study aims at developing a process to evaluate the impacts of the accidental emission of hazardous chemicals. The proposed process consists of four basic steps: i) identifying risks/hazards; ii) development of the worst-case scenario; iii) simulating the emission and dispersion of the toxic chemicals; and iv) assessing the severity of the impact to the people and the surroundings. It makes use of different techniques including accidental release source term, atmospheric dispersion modeling and results in the concentration and extent of the toxic chemicals in...
Top-down, Bottom-up and Sideways: The Multilayered Complexities of Multi-level Actors Shaping Forest Governance and REDD+ Arrangements in Madre de Dios, Peru
03. Januar 2018
Abstract This study examines the role multilevel governance plays in the adoption of sustainable landscape management initiatives in emerging arrangements aimed at reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+). It sheds light on the challenges these multiple layers of actors and interests encounter around such alternatives in a subnational jurisdiction. Through transcript analysis of 93 interviews with institutional actors in the region of Madre de Dios, Peru, particularly with regard to five sites of land-use change, we identified the multiple...
From State-controlled to Polycentric Governance in Forest Landscape Restoration: The Case of the Ecological Forest Purchase Program in Yong’an Municipality of China
02. Januar 2018
Abstract Forest landscape restoration is emerging as an effective approach to restore degraded forests for the provision of ecosystem services and to minimize trade-offs between conservation and rural livelihoods. Policy and institutional innovations in China illustrate the governance transformation of forest landscape restoration from state-controlled to polycentric governance. Based on a case study of the Ecological Forest Purchase Program in Yong’an municipality, China’s Fujian Province, this paper explores how such forest governance transformation has evolved and...
Are We Underestimating Microplastic Contamination in Aquatic Environments?
01. Januar 2018
Abstract Plastic debris, specifically microplastic in the aquatic environment, is an escalating environmental crisis. Efforts at national scales to reduce or ban microplastics in personal care products are starting to pay off, but this will not affect those materials already in the environment or those that result from unregulated products and materials. To better inform future microplastic research and mitigation efforts this study (1) evaluates methods currently used to quantify microplastics in the environment and (2) characterizes the concentration and size...
Toxicological Assessment and UV/TiO 2 -Based Induced Degradation Profile of Reactive Black 5 Dye
01. Januar 2018
Abstract In this study, the toxicological and degradation profile of Reactive Black 5 (RB5) dye was evaluated using a UV/TiO2-based degradation system. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thin layer chromatography (TLC), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) techniques were used to evaluate the degradation level of RB5. The UV-Vis spectral analysis revealed the disappearance of peak intensity at 599 nm (λmax). The FT-IR spectrum of UV/TiO2 treated dye sample...
Effects of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Fertilizer and Topsoil Amendment on Native Plant Cover in Roadside Revegetation Projects
01. Januar 2018
Abstract Establishing vegetation on roadsides following construction can be challenging, especially for relatively slow growing native species. Topsoil is generally removed during construction, and the surface soil following construction (“cut-slope soils”) is often compacted and low in nutrients, providing poor growing conditions for vegetation. Nebraska Department of Transportation (NDOT) protocols have historically called for nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilization when planting roadside vegetation following construction, but these recommendations were...
Evaluating Partnerships to Enhance Disaster Risk Management using Multi-Criteria Analysis: An Application at the Pan-European Level
01. Januar 2018
Abstract Disaster risk is increasingly recognized as a major development challenge. Recent calls emphasize the need to proactively engage in disaster risk reduction, as well as to establish new partnerships between private and public sector entities in order to decrease current and future risks. Very often such potential partnerships have to meet different objectives reflecting on the priorities of stakeholders involved. Consequently, potential partnerships need to be assessed on multiple criteria to determine weakest links and greatest threats in collaboration. This...
Temporal Dynamics of the Driving Factors of Urban Landscape Change of Addis Ababa During the Past Three Decades
01. Januar 2018
Abstract Mapping and quantifying urban landscape dynamics and the underlying driving factors are crucial for devising appropriate policies, especially in cities of developing countries where the change is rapid. This study analyzed three decades (1984–2014) of land use land cover change of Addis Ababa using Landsat imagery and examined the underlying factors and their temporal dynamics through expert interview using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). Classification results revealed that urban area increased by 50%, while agricultural land and forest decreased by 34 and...
Survey of Beaver-related Restoration Practices in Rangeland Streams of the Western USA
01. Januar 2018
Abstract Poor condition of many streams and concerns about future droughts in the arid and semi-arid western USA have motivated novel restoration strategies aimed at accelerating recovery and increasing water resources. Translocation of beavers into formerly occupied habitats, restoration activities encouraging beaver recolonization, and instream structures mimicking the effects of beaver dams are restoration alternatives that have recently gained popularity because of their potential socioeconomic and ecological benefits. However, beaver dams and dam-like structures...

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