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Urban Ecosystems 

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Urban park area and age determine the richness of native and exotic plants in parks of a Latin American city: Santiago as a case study
17. Februar 2018
Abstract Plant diversity and composition in urban parks is determined by socio-economics, environmental, and ecological drivers. These drivers give rise to urban spaces with unique compositions of flora, consisting of planted and spontaneous species. The present study aimed to determine the contribution of native and exotic species in urban parks of a Latin American city, and to assess the related role of park area, age and socio-economic status. We also evaluated administration type (public or private) and the effect of environmental factors on plant richness. We...
Ecohydrological model for the quantification of ecosystem services provided by urban street trees
17. Februar 2018
Abstract Urban green spaces have been recognized as an important source of ecosystem services, whose quantification requires the determination of quantities related to energy, water, carbon and soil nutrient content. In this paper we propose a stochastic ecohydrological model that couples two existing models for water and nutrients in urban soil at the single street-tree scale. The model input are rainfall and irrigation, for water, and deposition and fertilization, for nitrogen, while the output are evapotranspiration, runoff and deep percolation, for water, and plant...
Determining species specific nightly bat activity in sites with varying urban intensity
17. Februar 2018
Abstract Time of peak bat activity during the night differs among bat species due to temperature, prey availability, habitat availability, and/or interactions between species. Habitat availability is altered in urban areas, which may affect insect prey availability and interspecies interactions. Our objectives were to use mobile acoustic monitoring to determine when bat species were active in a single night in urban and nonurban sites and if nightly bat activity patterns differed in urban versus nonurban sites. Bat echolocation call sequences were recorded using Anabat...
Invasive weeds in urban riparian zones: the influence of catchment imperviousness and soil chemistry across an urbanization gradient
08. Februar 2018
Abstract The riparian zones of urban waterways are frequently degraded by weed invasions. This study examined the effects of different levels of catchment imperviousness, as a surrogate for the extent and intensity of urbanisation, on invasive weeds and soil physical and chemical attributes. The study was conducted adjacent to waterways in the partly urbanised Georges River catchment in south western Sydney. Vegetation and soil sampling was undertaken in the riparian zone of 10 freshwater streams in non-urban (low imperviousness), peri-urban (moderate imperviousness) and...
The state and use of municipal tree inventories in Swedish municipalities – results from a national survey
08. Februar 2018
Abstract Urban trees are an essential component of urban ecosystems, and management of this resource constitutes an essential element of urban open space management. However, municipal tree inventories in Sweden and elsewhere have received limited attention. It is unknown how common municipal tree inventories are in Sweden, factors governing whether a municipality has an inventory and what the inventories are used for. This study therefore sought to: Create an overview of the state of Swedish municipal tree inventories and determine how municipality size, green space...
Comparison of water-use characteristics of landscape tree ( Tabebuia argentea ) and palm ( Ptychosperma macarthurii ) species in a tropical roof garden with implications for urban water management
08. Februar 2018
Abstract In cities, landscape palms and trees are planted for scenic views and normally maintained with frequent irrigation. With similar water input, their morphological difference may lead to different water-use that varies seasonally. Thus, evaluating their water-use patterns is necessary to achieve proper urban water management. Here, we examined water-use characteristics of Tabebuia argentea and Ptychosperma macarthurii, a tree and a palm species, in a roof garden in Bangkok, Thailand. Self-constructed Granier’s probes were used for sap flux measurement and...
Rural land use bifurcation in the urban-rural gradient
06. Februar 2018
Abstract The classic urban-rural gradient concept assumes a decline in land use intensity from an intensively developed urban core outward to residential suburbs, culminating in lightly developed rural areas. The concept provides a common framework directing urban socio-ecological research. Given that rural land use includes woodlands and croplands, and croplands appear as ecologically depauperate as urban lands, we investigated land-use patterns along urban-rural gradients for 30 large metropolitan areas in the eastern United States. We predicted a bifurcation at the...
Specific niche requirements drive long-term survival and growth of translocated epiphytic orchids in an urbanised tropical landscape
06. Februar 2018
Abstract Urbanisation is expanding at an unprecedented rate, affecting multiple taxa the world over. Ex situ conservation practices in urban areas (e.g. managed relocation) can help mitigate species extinction. However, systematic evaluations of ex situ practices and quantification of niche spaces, especially in urban areas, are largely lacking. Using epiphytic orchids as a study system, we translocated 13 propagated native species (2251 individuals) on 99 host trees across six urban sites. After 5 years, 12 of 13 species showed survival rates above 50% and 9 of 11...
Does urbanization explain differences in interactions between an insect herbivore and its natural enemies and mutualists?
03. Februar 2018
Abstract Urbanization can alter the composition of arthropod communities. However, little is known about how urbanization affects ecological interactions. Using experimental colonies of the black bean aphid Aphis fabae Scopoli reared on Vicia faba L, we asked if patterns of predator-prey, host-parasitoid and ant-aphid mutualisms varied along an urbanization gradient across a large town in southern England. We recorded the presence of naturally occurring predators, parasitoid wasps and mutualistic ants together with aphid abundance. We examined how biotic (green areas and...
What shapes plant and animal diversity on urban golf courses?
03. Februar 2018
Abstract Recent concern over increasing loss of biodiversity has prompted considerable interest in the role of urban green spaces as reservoirs of local biodiversity. This study assessed the diversity of three indicator taxa - plants, ants and birds - on golf courses spanning a wide range of environmental variation in terms of climate, elevation, course age, size and connectivity to native woodland. Species richness and community composition was further compared between contrasting on-course habitat types that reflect different management intensities. We identified a set...
Erratum to: Beyond the urban stream syndrome: organic matter budget for diagnostics and restoration of an impaired urban river
01. Februar 2018
Abstract This article was unintentionally published twice in this journal, by the same authors.
Correction to: Analysis of environmental flow requirements for macroinvertebrates in a creek affected by urban drainage (Prague metropolitan area, Czech Republic)
01. Februar 2018
Abstract The original version of this article unfortunately contained errors. The given name and family name of all the authors were interchanged. Dana, Jana and Tomáš are given names while Komínková, Caletková and Vitvar are family names respectively.
Impact of urbanisation and agriculture on the diet of fruit bats
01. Februar 2018
Abstract The expansion of cities and agricultural plantations have unpredictable impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem services. Yet some species are capable of tolerating anthropogenic impacts and continue to provide ecological services in highly disturbed landscapes. The objective of this study was to use DNA barcoding to identify digested plant materials and seeds in the faeces of frugivorous bats (Cynopterus brachyotis) and investigate whether (1) C. brachyotis in urban and agricultural areas exploit cultivated and exotic plants as a novel food resource and as a...
Raptor nesting locations along an urban density gradient in the Great Basin, USA
01. Februar 2018
Abstract Raptors are the most prevalent group of urban apex predators, and the majority of raptor genera in North America have been recorded using urban areas. Prior research assessments along urban-wildland gradients show that urban habitat preference varies by raptor species and that raptor nesting preferences within urban settings may vary. Attempts to understand the intra- and inter-specific nesting patterns along an urban gradient would advance extant knowledge. Here we present the locations of individual nest sites of nine raptor species along an urban gradient in...
A fig tree in a concrete jungle: fine-scale population genetic structure of the cluster fig Ficus racemosa in an urban environment
01. Februar 2018
Abstract Urban vegetation is an essential requirement in cities for mitigating pollution, heat island effects and providing food and shelter to urban fauna. Efforts to conserve and augment green cover in cities, however, often lack data on the genetic diversity of urban trees, which could be crucial to the success of such programmes. We investigate the population genetics of the cluster fig Ficus racemosa, which occurs naturally in Indian cities and is a keystone species for urban fauna. Genetic analysis of 51 F. racemosa trees in urban Bangalore, India, shows no...
Urban bird community composition influenced by size of urban green spaces, presence of native forest, and urbanization
01. Februar 2018
Abstract Understanding what determines wildlife species richness and community composition in urban green spaces is important for wildlife management and urban planning. Numerous studies have assessed the relationships between attributes of urban green spaces (size, vegetation, isolation, urbanization) and bird species richness, but little is known about how these factors influence community composition. I censused breeding land birds in 93 urban green spaces in Oslo, Norway, and species were grouped according to ecology (habitat preference, nest site, migration, diet...
Evaluating the effectiveness of urban trees to mitigate storm water runoff via transpiration and stemflow
01. Februar 2018
Abstract Many cities in the Eastern United States are working to increase urban tree cover due to the hydrological services that trees provide, including the interception, storage and transpiration of water that would otherwise enter sewer systems. Despite the understanding that trees benefit urban ecosystems, there have been few studies that address the underlying physiology of different urban trees with regard to their capacity to take up water, particularly following rain events. We monitored the sap flow of nine species of trees in urban parks and linked sap flow to...
Spatial variability of fish communities in a highly urbanised reef system
01. Februar 2018
Abstract Rapid coastal development has generated interest in the ecology of human-modified marine environments. Coastal defence structures such as breakwaters and seawalls are increasingly built to reduce erosion and to mitigate the impacts of sea level rise but knowledge on the marine biodiversity around these structures is lacking. Benthic cover and fish community were surveyed at nine offshore sites, comprising seven coral reefs and two seawalls, in the Singapore’s highly urbanised reef system. A total of 4943 fishes from 70 taxa were recorded, dominated by...
Ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) communities on green roofs in Switzerland: synthesis and perspectives
01. Februar 2018
Abstract Green roofs have recently gained recognition for their potential contribution to urban ecosystems by providing, among other services, habitat for plants and animals, and stepping stones for mobile organisms, thereby enhancing permeability among habitat patches across densely built cities. In Switzerland, investigations over the past 20 years on more than one hundred distinct green roofs across six cities have provided an unprecedented dataset on ground beetles, albeit with information that is scattered across unpublished reports and local databases. We present...
Street trees in Paris are sensitive to spring and autumn precipitation and recent climate changes
01. Februar 2018
Abstract Determining the main factors causing urban tree decline is becoming essential for sustaining their health and survival. Understanding responses of tree growth to urban environments and climate change throughout tree life span is thus necessary. To explore these questions, a dendrochronological study exploring past climate-tree growth relationships was conducted on street and park silver lindens in Paris, according to different DBH classes used as a proxy of tree age, and using climatic data for the 1970–2013 period. Younger urban silver lindens presented high...

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