Menü
Deutsch | English

Recent Scientific Papers


Urban Ecosystems 

Latest Results for Urban Ecosystems
The latest content available from Springer
Home range and habitat use of feral cats in an urban mosaic in Pietermaritzburg, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa
11. Mai 2018
Abstract Feral cats (Felis catus) are one of the world’s worst invasive species with continuing expanding populations, particularly in urban areas. Effects of anthropogenic changing land-use, especially urbanisation, can alter distribution and behaviour of feral cats. Additionally, resource availability can influence home range and habitat use. Therefore, we investigated home range and habitat use of feral cats (n = 11) in an urban mosaic with varying degrees of urbanisation and green spaces in Pietermaritzburg, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Using global positioning...
A green space vision in Southeast Michigan’s most heavily industrialized area
11. Mai 2018
Abstract In 2011, Marathon Petroleum Company LP, which has operated a refinery west of the Rouge River since 1959, initiated a voluntary property purchase program in the neighborhood known as the Oakwood Heights. Approximately 80 % of residents accepted the offers made to them. Around the same time, a group of community and nonprofit stakeholders was developing a vision for revitalizing the area adjacent to the new Fort Street Bridge, through celebrating cultural heritage, preserving natural Great Lake habitats and supporting recreational opportunities along the river. As...
Comparing the relative abilities of tree species to cool the urban environment
02. Mai 2018
Abstract Increasing urbanisation poses numerous challenges to human quality of life. Cities are particularly vulnerable to the urban heat-island effect, which will be amplified by climate change. Increasing tree cover may be one of the most cost-effective ways of moderating urban temperatures. Trees cool their surroundings by casting shade, reflecting solar radiation, transpiring, and intercepting rainfall that subsequently evaporates. However, the potential of trees to reduce the urban heat-island effect is underutilised. The aim of this study was to synthesise...
Social-ecological research in urban natural areas: an emergent process for integration
01. Mai 2018
Abstract Understanding the structure and function of urban landscapes requires integrating social and ecological research. Here, we integrate parallel social and ecological assessments of natural areas within New York City. We examined social data (from a rapid assessment of park use and meaning, collected at a park zone level) alongside ecological data (from a plot-based assessment of forest structure and diversity). In-depth interviews with researchers and managers (n = 11) involved with the social and ecological assessments revealed commonly-held values considered...
The role of managed natural spaces in connecting people with urban nature: a comparison of local user, researcher, and provider views
26. April 2018
Abstract Increasing evidence of the health and wellbeing benefits of urban natural spaces has resulted in policy goals to increase their use. Making these spaces accessible and attractive to potential users is fundamental to achieving these goals since a mismatch between design and use can mean that the potential benefits of these spaces are not fully realised. Yet there has been limited investigation of whether the ambitions of providers align with local user preferences. Using a qualitative approach, we combined interviews of providers and researchers with focus groups...
People or place? An exploration of social and ecological drivers of urban forest species composition
25. April 2018
Abstract Urban forests have garnered increasing attention as providers of an array of beneficial ecosystem services. However, urban forest ecosystems are highly complex and heterogeneous systems whose structure are shaped by interacting social and ecological processes. Approaches to reliably identify and differentiate these processes could be valuable for addressing complexity and reducing uncertainty in decision-making in urban forestry. The purpose of this study is to identify and quantify a range of social and ecological drivers of urban forest species composition...
Humans and urban development mediate the sympatry of competing carnivores
17. April 2018
Abstract Humans can profoundly shape animal community dynamics, but such effects have rarely been evaluated for terrestrial carnivores. Humans affect carnivores in both spatial and temporal dimensions via the chance of human encounter and alteration of the landscape through urban development. We investigated three hypotheses regarding how humans mediate the sympatry of larger, dominant carnivores with their smaller, subordinate counterparts. We tested these hypotheses by examining the spatio-temporal dynamics of a dominant carnivore (coyote Canis latrans) and its...
Socioeconomic and ecological perceptions and barriers to urban tree distribution and reforestation programs
16. April 2018
Abstract Tree planting and reforestation initiatives in urban and peri-urban areas often use tree distribution or “giveaway” programs as a strategy to increase tree cover and subsequent benefits. However, the effectiveness of these programs in terms of increasing overall tree cover and providing benefits to low-income and disadvantaged communities has been little studied. We assess these programs by exploring community participation in, and barriers to, an urban tree distribution program in Fort Lauderdale, United States and the role socioeconomic background and tree...
Floral morphology as the main driver of flower-feeding insect occurrences in the Paris region
14. April 2018
Abstract Through the rapid expansion worldwide of impervious areas and habitat fragmentation, urbanization has strong consequences that must be understood to efficiently manage biodiversity. We studied the effects of urbanization on flower-feeding insects by using data from a citizen science program in the Parisian region. We analysed the occurrence of insects from 46 different families on flowers of different morphologies, using landscape indices in buffer areas from a 100-m to a 4000-m radius around 1194 sampled sites. Our aims were to determine (i) how the proportion...
City parks vs. natural areas - is it possible to preserve a natural level of bee richness and abundance in a city park?
13. April 2018
Abstract Urbanisation is an expansive process and a majority of insects live in human-modified areas. At the same time, a decrease in pollinator species richness and abundance has recently been observed in Europe, which in turn may have serious ecological and economic consequences. This study investigates the abundance, species richness and functional traits of wild bees in urban city parks in comparison to natural areas. The aim of this research was to assess the potential conservation values of urban green areas for bees. The present study demonstrates that a large and...
Birds biodiversity in urban and periurban forests: environmental determinants at local and landscape scales
09. April 2018
Abstract A significant decline in biodiversity is associated with the current and upcoming degree of urbanization. A challenging strategy to address this conflict is to make urban growth compatible with biodiversity protection and in this context urban parks can play a crucial role. Urban systems are highly dynamic and complex human-shaped ecosystems, where the relationship between species and environment may be altered and make the preservation of biodiversity within them a challenging goal. In this study, we analysed how different environmental features affect bird...
Ichthyofauna diet changes in response to urbanization: the case of upper Paranapanema River basin (Brazil)
04. April 2018
Abstract Alterations in stream environments can alter fish food availability, but there is little research data related to the impacts of urbanization on fish diets in tropical streams. Thus, we sought to compare the diet of ten fish species in urbanized and non-urbanized streams reaches. Fish stomach contents were obtained for four urban and five non-urban stream reaches from two medium-sized cities. We verified the similarity of diet composition from urbanized/non-urbanized streams. In-stream features mainly related to the substrate highlighted a perturbation gradient...
From feedbacks to coproduction: toward an integrated conceptual framework for urban ecosystems
02. April 2018
Abstract Research in urban ecology depends on frameworks that meaningfully integrate our understanding of biophysical and social change. Although the coupled nature of urban ecosystems is widely accepted, the core mechanisms we use to integrate the social and biophysical aspects of urban ecosystems – their social-ecological feedbacks – are poorly understood. This paper considers how feedbacks are used to conceptualize social-ecological change, noting their utility and their limitations. In so doing, we suggest that coproduction provides a meaningful alternative to...
Reducing avian mortality from noise barrier collisions along an urban roadway
01. April 2018
Abstract Anthropogenic changes, including road network, have strongly influenced biodiversity of Europe. For the past 100 years road networks have become a conspicuous part of European landscape and strongly affected environment and human well-being, including effect by noise. To reduce impact of noise the special barriers (mainly transparent) are installed along a road. Annually thousands of birds die in collision with glass and acrylic screens, and these are important causes of avian mortality. Here we report about and describe how to prevent the lethal hazards that...
Renaissance of a rural artifact in a city with a million people: biodiversity responses to an agro-forestry restoration in a large urban traditional fruit orchard
01. April 2018
Abstract The rural landscapes surrounding large cities are rapidly becoming incorporated into the urban environment. The most conspicuous changes involve green spaces, such as former agro-forestry systems like fruit orchards. In this paper, we assess the influence on biodiversity of restoring a large urban traditional fruit orchard as reflected by six selected taxa: plants, lichens, butterflies, beetles, orthopteroids and birds. The study was performed in Prague, which is the capital city of the Czech Republic and has more than a million inhabitants. We studied the...
Human perceptions of an avian predator in an urban ecosystem: close proximity to nests increases fondness among local residents
01. April 2018
Abstract How humans view their local birds influences the habitat quality for the birds. Humans that enjoy birds will often consider them when altering landscapes or may enhance their own property to benefit the birds (e.g. maintaining birdfeeders, keeping cats indoors). Human perceptions of hawks are unique as hawks predatory and much larger than most other urban birds. From June–July 2016, we surveyed 280 homes near Red-tailed Hawk’s (Buteo jamaicensis) nests in Reno-Sparks, NV about their perceptions of and experiences with hawks. Seventy percent of residents...
Bird diversity of greenspaces in the densely developed city centre of Taipei
01. April 2018
Abstract Urban greenspaces harbouring many species in cities are vital planning objects for enhancing biodiversity. Seeking to optimise ecological values of urban greenspaces, this paper explores 1. Bird composition by feeding and foraging characteristics in urban greenspaces located in densely developed central districts of Taipei City; and 2. Important features of greenspaces and underlying built environments that influence bird abundance, species richness, and diversity. Results show that the majority of birds found in the study sites are omnivorous and ground...
An urban stream can support a healthy population of coastal cutthroat trout
01. April 2018
Abstract Urbanization presents numerous challenges to aquatic species. For fish, typical threats include altered flow dynamics, poor water quality, and degraded food webs. These threats can be detrimental to fish and whether urban environments can support healthy populations is unclear. Tryon Creek is one of the largest urban watersheds in Portland, Oregon where developed land accounts for 55.6% of total land use. We used demographic, life history, disease, and genetic indices to assess the overall health of the Coastal Cutthroat Trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii) population...
The application of graph theory and percolation analysis for assessing change in the spatial configuration of pond networks
01. April 2018
Abstract Pond networks support high levels of biodiversity when compared to other freshwater ecosystems such as rivers, lakes and streams. The persistence of species in these small, sometimes ephemeral, aquatic habitats depends on the dispersal of individuals among ponds in the landscape. However, the number of ponds across the landscape is at a historical low as urbanisation and intensified agricultural practices have led to a substantial loss of ponds (nodes in the pond network) over more than a century. Here, we examine the extent and drivers of pond loss in a...
Comparison of localities of European hamster ( Cricetus cricetus ) in the areas of high and low level of human activity
01. April 2018
Abstract European hamster (Cricetus cricetus) holds the status of a strictly protected species with the necessity to be active protected. The decline in its population and limitations in the native habitats in Europe is probably closely related to the loss of their habitats among others due to development of infrastructure and urbanization. On the other side urban areas can be an alternative habitat for hamsters. This study compared the functioning of local population of hamsters inhabiting two areas of high and low level and different kind of human activity. Few key...