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Urban Ecosystems 

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Nest predators, but not nest survival, differ between adjacent urban habitats
19. Januar 2018
Abstract Growing human populations make it imperative for ecologists to identify strategies to conserve biodiversity in human-dominated landscapes, such as cities. Effects of urbanization on birds are particularly well-studied, but questions remain regarding the best conservation approaches. Debate about the relative utility of focusing conservation efforts on nature reserves versus developed lands has focused largely on comparing species abundance or presence, with few studies addressing underlying behavioral or demographic mechanisms. Here we evaluated differences in...
Evaluating the distribution of invasive woody vegetation around riparian corridors in relation to land use
16. Januar 2018
Abstract Invasive species have been causing important and irreversible impacts to native species and communities of ecosystems. They distort ecosystem functions by degrading forest lands, wetlands, and agricultural habitats and replace the native vegetation and reduce biodiversity, forest productivity, and suitable wildlife habitat. To address disturbances caused by invasive species occurrence, further information is needed regarding the occurrence, extent, and dispersal of invasive species and how land use may increase the spread of these species. The objective of this...
Bird diversity of greenspaces in the densely developed city centre of Taipei
23. Dezember 2017
Abstract Urban greenspaces harbouring many species in cities are vital planning objects for enhancing biodiversity. Seeking to optimise ecological values of urban greenspaces, this paper explores 1. Bird composition by feeding and foraging characteristics in urban greenspaces located in densely developed central districts of Taipei City; and 2. Important features of greenspaces and underlying built environments that influence bird abundance, species richness, and diversity. Results show that the majority of birds found in the study sites are omnivorous and ground foragers...
Genets in the city: community observations and perceptions of large-spotted genets ( Genetta tigrina ) in an urban environment
23. Dezember 2017
Abstract The global increase in urbanization has resulted in exclusion of many carnivore species from human-altered landscapes due to a variety of anthropogenic impacts. However, despite the negative impacts of urbanization on carnivores, certain species exhibit an ability to survive within urban areas. The aim of the study was to solicit community-based information, using a questionnaire mainly, to investigate the distribution of Large-spotted Genets (Genetta tigrina) within the urban environment of the greater Durban district, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, and...
The application of graph theory and percolation analysis for assessing change in the spatial configuration of pond networks
18. Dezember 2017
Abstract Pond networks support high levels of biodiversity when compared to other freshwater ecosystems such as rivers, lakes and streams. The persistence of species in these small, sometimes ephemeral, aquatic habitats depends on the dispersal of individuals among ponds in the landscape. However, the number of ponds across the landscape is at a historical low as urbanisation and intensified agricultural practices have led to a substantial loss of ponds (nodes in the pond network) over more than a century. Here, we examine the extent and drivers of pond loss in a heavily...
Habitat selection by an avian top predator in the tropical megacity of Delhi: human activities and socio-religious practices as prey-facilitating tools
18. Dezember 2017
Abstract Research in urban ecology is growing rapidly in response to the exponential growth of the urban environment. However, few studies have focused on tropical megacities, and on the interplay between predators’ habitat selection and human socio-economic aspects, which may mediate their resilience and coexistence with humans. We examined mechanisms of breeding habitat selection by a synanthropic raptor, the Black Kite Milvus migrans, in Delhi (India) where kites mainly subsist on: (1) human refuse and its associated prey-fauna, and (2) ritualised feeding of kites...
Correction to: Analysis of environmental flow requirements for macroinvertebrates in a creek affected by urban drainage (Prague metropolitan area, Czech Republic)
15. Dezember 2017
Abstract The original version of this article unfortunately contained errors. The given name and family name of all the authors were interchanged. Dana, Jana and Tomáš are given names while Komínková, Caletková and Vitvar are family names respectively.
Alien aquatic plants in wetlands of a large European city (Geneva, Switzerland): from diagnosis to risk assessment
11. Dezember 2017
Abstract Wetlands often form an important component in the urban matrix, where they are largely disseminated. Despite the abundance of these urban waterbodies, little is known about the spread of alien aquatic plant species in cities. Ponds are frequent in urban parks and domestic gardens where terrestrial alien plant species are common. Therefore, urban ponds are likely to support many aquatic alien species which might disperse to the natural environment. To investigate this potential, we collected data from 178 ponds in a large European city (Geneva, Switzerland), across...
Stream restoration in Andean cities: learning from contrasting restoration approaches
02. Dezember 2017
Abstract The Andes region is one of the fastest urbanizing regions of the world. The current rate of environmental degradation of streams in this region create an urgent need for sanitation and restoration programs that restore the ecological quality of streams while providing green and recreational areas. The tectonics of the area and its vulnerability to climate change adds relevance to wise landscape management in urban areas. Recent restoration efforts have been conducted with differing degrees of community involvement. Based on their social and ecological restoration...
The use of military bunkers by the European badger and red fox in Western Europe
02. Dezember 2017
Abstract Intensification of agriculture and land consolidation policy induced the removal of most natural features from farmland, reducing the habitat of many wild species. Abandoned WWII bunkers, unaffected by land consolidation, are a potential shelter for wildlife and could be used as burrows by carnivores such as European badgers and red foxes. We explored 182 abandoned bunkers in a farmland area in eastern France in summer 2016. Bunkers were located in crops, forests, or groves. Over a three-month period, signs of presence, the number and type of...
Variability of bumblebee communities (Apidae, Bombini) in urban green areas
01. Dezember 2017
Abstract Based on current research the agglomerations are potentially desirable habitats for bumblebees. However, the relationship between the biodiversity of these bees and the green areas where they live is poorly understood. The aim of the study was to estimate the influence of green areas (ranging from 8 to 102 ha) of big cities on bumblebee species richness, composition, and the relative number of these insects. The studies were conducted within the administrative borders of the city of Wrocław (Poland) in 2011–2012 in 12 green areas such as parks, cemeteries...
Atypical feeding of woodpeckers, crows and redstarts on mass-swarming Hydropsyche pellucidula caddisflies attracted to glass panes
01. Dezember 2017
Abstract Artificial shiny dark objects reflecting horizontally polarized light (e.g. asphalt roads, black cars, solar panels) can attract polarotactic aquatic insects in mass. Glass buildings on the riverside also lure swarming caddisflies emerging from the river. These caddisfly swarms are a temporary rich food source for certain bird species, such as white wagtails (Motacilla alba), house sparrows (Passer domesticus), magpies (Pica pica) and great tits (Parus major). We report here about our observation of great spotted woodpeckers (Dendrocopos major), hooded crows...
Relationships between landscape pattern metrics, vertical structure and surface urban Heat Island formation in a Colorado suburb
01. Dezember 2017
Abstract Change in land surface temperature (LST) due to urbanization is a critical influence on the ecohydrological function and human health in cities. Past research has emphasized land cover composition and planimetric landscape pattern as drivers of LST patterns, but there have been few empirical studies examining the effects of vertical structure on thermal variation in cities. We used agglomerative cluster analysis to group 5 ha grid cells with similar land cover composition from high-resolution land cover data for our Aurora, Colorado, USA study area. We then...
The effects of scatter-hoarding rodents on Mongolian oak ( Quercus mongolica ) acorn dispersal and seedling distribution in urban woodland
01. Dezember 2017
Abstract Scatter-hoarding by animals is an effective mechanism for seed dispersal and plant regeneration in natural ecosystems, however, studies on the interaction between hoarding animals and urban forest are insufficient. By methods of acorn placement experiment, cache and seedling survey, the relationship between acorn dispersal and seedlings distribution of Mongolian oak (Quercus mongolica) and scatter hoarding rodents was investigated at the Northeast Forestry University Woodland of Harbin, China. Results indicated that main scatter hoarding rodents of acorns were...
Rainfall events drive foraging choices by an urban coloniser
01. Dezember 2017
Abstract Using a seven-year data set of visitation of an inner city park by the Australian white ibis, we investigated whether rain events were correlated with ibis abundance in the park. The park is associated with high levels of anthropogenic food, but relatively low levels of natural food sources. For all magnitudes of rainfall tested, ibis abundance significantly decreased after a rainfall event, although stronger responses were associated with higher rainfall, with a 46% decline in ibis abundance following rainfall events of ≥60 mm. Average ibis abundance was...
Agricultural food resources and the foraging ecologies of American black ducks ( Anas rubripes ) and mallards ( Anas platyrhynchos ) at the northern limits of their winter ranges
01. Dezember 2017
Abstract Atlantic Canada is the northern limit of the American black duck (Anas rubripes) wintering range, and more recently, the mallard (A. platyrhynchos) wintering range. Atlantic Canada has experienced considerable urban and agricultural development over the last century, and wintering black ducks and mallards appear to be using these habitats, in addition to traditional coastal habitat to survive the winters. This paper combines digestive tract content and stable isotope analysis to provide a comprehensive analysis of winter black duck and mallard diet in Atlantic...
Soil lead contamination decreases bee visit duration at sunflowers
01. Dezember 2017
Abstract Legacies of lead contamination present challenges in the management of urban greenspaces for beneficial insect conservation. In particular, the sublethal effects of lead contamination on bee foraging behavior could negatively impact plant-pollinator interactions and the sustainability of urban agriculture. It is difficult, however, to distinguish between differences in foraging behavior caused by lead contamination directly as compared to differences resulting from variation in floral traits, which can also be affected by contamination. We compared the foraging...
Substrate influence on aromatic plant growth in extensive green roofs in a Mediterranean climate
01. Dezember 2017
Abstract Green roofs have been described as technical solutions to overcome urban environmental problems, such as decrease of vegetation and stormwater management. In the present study, two pilot 20 m2 extensive green roofs were implemented in an urban Mediterranean region, at a 1st storey on a warehouse building structure, in order to test the adequacy of different substrates for supporting aromatic plants (Lavandula dentata, Helichrysum italicum, Satureja montana, Thymus caespititius and Thymus pseudolanuginosus). Experimental substrates included expanded clay and...
Effects of habitat and landscape quality on amphibian assemblages of urban stormwater ponds
01. Dezember 2017
Abstract Urbanisation is one of the most severe drivers of current global biodiversity loss and has contributed to severe declines in many amphibian species. The aim of this study was to determine whether artificial stormwater ponds, designed to control water flow, can act as refuges for amphibians in urban areas. Moreover, we analysed the influence of habitat and landscape quality on amphibian species richness of 46 stormwater ponds (STOPON) in comparison to 46 control ponds (CONTROL). Our study revealed that environmental conditions clearly varied...
Nitrogen retention and loss in unfertilized lawns across a light gradient
01. Dezember 2017
Abstract A desirable function for terrestrial urban ecosystems is the mitigation of nitrogen (N) pollution associated with cities and suburbs. To assist in maximizing this function, identifying locations of sources and sinks of N in the urban environment is crucial to inform management strategies. Lawns are an extensive land cover in urbanized landscapes, and in general, they have demonstrated the capacity to function as a sink for N inputs. How N is cycled by lawns, however, is likely not uniform across the physical heterogeneity or management activities that exist in...

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