Menü
Deutsch | English

Recent Scientific Papers


Ecosystems 

Latest Results for Ecosystems
The latest content available from Springer
Legacies of Nutrient Accumulation and Depletion in Residential Ecosystems
12. April 2021
Abstract In residential ecosystems, land management can help regulate climate and improve water quality by promoting the accumulation of nutrients in the soil. We tested how varying intensity of residential land use and management altered nutrient (Ca, K, Mg, P, S) pools. We studied soils and vegetation across twelve land use-intensity gradients (yards-perennial old fields-forests) established 15–227 y. ago in the native ecosystems of temperate forests. We found that yard soils were enriched with nutrients relative to fields and forests, regardless of recent yard...
How Are Greenhouse Gases Coupled Across Seasons in a Large Temperate River with Differential Land Use?
12. April 2021
Abstract Rivers are known to emit large amounts of greenhouse gases globally, however, few studies have evaluated the interacting influence of land use, within river features (for example, sites of major confluence, changes in shape), and hydrology on the coupled dynamics of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). Here, we measured CO2, CH4 and N2O concentrations and fluxes at 15 sites along a 146.6 km stretch of the main stem of a large north temperate river: the Rivière du Nord, which experiences an abrupt change in geology and land use and winter...
Methane and Carbon Dioxide Flux Heterogeneity Mediated by Termite Mounds in Moist Tropical Forest Soils of Himalayan Foothills, India
09. April 2021
Abstract Termites are dominant soil macro-fauna in tropical forests, yet remain an uncertain component of the carbon budget in many regions. We investigated CH4 and CO2 flux patterns from termite mounds and background soils of moist tropical deciduous forests in Indian lower Himalaya from April 2015 till March 2016 using static closed chamber technique. The relation between gas fluxes and soil moisture as well as temperature were examined. Termite (Odontotermes obesus) mounds were significant localized source of CH4 (0.38 ± 0.01 mg m−2 h−1) and CO2...
Decomposition in Mixed Beech Forests in the South-Western Alps Under Severe Summer Drought
08. April 2021
Abstract Climate and plant litter diversity are major determinants of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling rates during decomposition. Yet, how these processes will be modified with combined changes in climate and biodiversity is poorly understood. With a multisite field experiment, we studied the interactive effects of reinforced and prolonged summer drought (using rainout shelters) and tree species mixing on leaf litter decomposition in beech forests in the French Alps. Forests included monospecific stands of Fagus sylvatica, Abies alba and Quercus pubescens and...
Soil Organic Carbon Content Decreases in Both Surface and Subsoil Mineral Horizons by Simulated Future Increases in Labile Carbon Inputs in a Temperate Coniferous Forest
07. April 2021
Abstract Soils represent important pools of soil organic carbon (SOC) that can be greatly influenced by labile C inputs, which are expected to increase in future due to CO2 enrichment of atmosphere and a concomitant rise in plant primary productivity. Studying effects of variable labile C inputs on SOC pool helps to understand how soils respond to global change. However, this knowledge is missing for coniferous forest soils despite being widespread throughout the northern temperate zone. We conducted a 7-month field manipulation experiment to study the effects of variable...
Differential Resilience of Soil Microbes and Ecosystem Functions Following Cessation of Long-Term Fertilization
07. April 2021
Abstract Nitrogen (N) from anthropogenic sources has dramatically increased in terrestrial ecosystems globally. Although belowground microbial processes and events that release N into the atmosphere, such as fire, could support ecosystem resilience to eutrophication, little is known about how these factors might affect N loss following chronic fertilization, thus promoting ecosystem recovery. We studied how N pools, N-cycling potential rates and their affiliated microbial populations, and microbial community composition responded to the factorial effects of cessation of...
Global Warming Potential Is Not an Ecosystem Property
05. April 2021
Abstract Greenhouse gas metrics and ecosystem greenhouse gas fluxes should not be confounded with each other, either conceptually or in the language that we use to describe them. The global warming potential (GWP) and sustained-flux global warming potential (SGWP) are metrics that describe the relative radiative impact of different greenhouse gases and have been widely used to normalize greenhouse gas fluxes as CO2 equivalents to facilitate comparisons. A clear application of definitions, the pursuit of scientific clarity, and the ability of language to influence our...
The Metabolic Regimes at the Scale of an Entire Stream Network Unveiled Through Sensor Data and Machine Learning
02. April 2021
Abstract Streams and rivers form dense networks that drain the terrestrial landscape and are relevant for biodiversity dynamics, ecosystem functioning, and transport and transformation of carbon. Yet, resolving in both space and time gross primary production (GPP), ecosystem respiration (ER) and net ecosystem production (NEP) at the scale of entire stream networks has been elusive so far. Here, combining Random Forest (RF) with time series of sensor data in 12 reach sites, we predicted annual regimes of GPP, ER, and NEP in 292 individual stream reaches and disclosed...
Post-Glacial Climate–Fire Interactions Control Tree Composition of Mesic Temperate Forests in Eastern North America
Abstract Stand-scale gap-phase dynamics is generally viewed as the main driver of development in mesic deciduous forests of the temperate biome. Soil charcoal of temperate forests in eastern North America are unnoticed in most surveys, thus explaining why fire is undervalued as a driver of forest succession. The extent to which gap-phase, fire, or other processes are responsible for the regeneration and maintenance of mesic deciduous forests is unknown because paleoecological evidence is lacking. We tested the fire-driven succession hypothesis on the development of this...
Forest Management Impacts on Greenhouse Gas Fluxes from Riparian Soils Along Headwater Streams
Abstract Increasing concentrations of atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHGs; CO2, CH4, N2O) cause climate change. Depending on the conditions, soils have the potential to store carbon or to be a source of GHGs to the atmosphere. Riparian soils in particular have high potential to store carbon, but also to be sources of CH4 and N2O. Headwater streams make up a large proportion of stream length in a drainage network, and their riparian zones have valuable ecosystem functions. In parallel, the riparian zones of headwater streams are particularly vulnerable to forest harvest...
Reforestations of Tropical Forests Alter Interactions Between Web-Building Spiders and Their Prey
Abstract Immense effort has been devoted to mitigating the negative effect of deforestation, one of the main factors causing global change. However, the effect of reforestation management on food-webs has been rarely studied and no study so far has investigated the effect on predator–prey interactions in forest understories. We studied predator–prey interactions in forest understories using web-building spiders in four forest types: dry evergreen forest representing a natural control and three 20–30-year-old reforestation types, namely secondary naturally...
Correction to: Relative Importance of Climate, Soil and Plant Functional Traits During the Early Decomposition Stage of Standardized Litter
A correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10021-021-00614-y
Stream Water Chemistry in Mixed-Conifer Headwater Basins: Role of Water Sources, Seasonality, Watershed Characteristics, and Disturbances
Abstract Understanding the transport of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen (N) as water flows through headwater basins is important for predicting downstream water quality. With increased recognition of climatic impact on nutrient transport, more studies are needed in headwater basins experiencing a Mediterranean-type climate, such as those of the Sierra Nevada, California. We analyzed water samples collected over 5 years from eight low-order and mixed-conifer watersheds to elucidate the temporal variation of water chemistry and evaluate their responses to...
Trade-offs Between Light and Nutrient Availability Across Gradients of Dissolved Organic Carbon Lead to Spatially and Temporally Variable Responses of Lake Phytoplankton Biomass to Browning
Abstract Northern lakes are experiencing widespread increases in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) that are likely to lead to changes in pelagic phytoplankton biomass. Pelagic phytoplankton biomass responds to trade-offs between light and nutrient availability. However, the influence of DOC light absorbing properties and carbon–nutrient stoichiometry on phytoplankton biomass across seasonal or spatial gradients has not been assessed. Here, we analyzed data from almost 5000 lakes to examine how the carbon–phytoplankton biomass relationship is influenced by seasonal changes...
Stream Macroinvertebrates and Carbon Cycling in Tangled Food Webs
Abstract The annual global loss of organic carbon from terrestrial ecosystems into rivers is similar to the organic carbon stored in soils each year. Dissolved organic matter (DOM) flows through the food web to macroinvertebrates, but little is known about the effect of DOM increase on stream food webs and how much macroinvertebrates may contribute to the regulation of carbon fluxes in rivers. Using a before and after control impact (BACI) experimental design, we increased by 12% (+ 0.52 mg C L−1) the concentration of DOM in a stream for three weeks by adding...
Ecological Memory of Historical Contamination Influences the Response of Phytoplankton Communities
Abstract Ecological memory (EM) recognizes the importance of previous stress encounters in promoting community tolerance and thereby enhances ecosystem stability, provided that gained tolerances are preserved during non-stress periods. Drawing from this concept, we hypothesized that the recruitment of tolerant species can be facilitated by imposing an initial sorting process (conditioning) during the early stages of community assembly, which should result in higher production (biomass development and photosynthetic efficiency) and stable community composition. To test...
Synergistic Effects of Rooted Aquatic Vegetation and Drift Wrack on Ecosystem Multifunctionality
Abstract Ecosystem multifunctionality is an increasingly popular concept used to approximate multifaceted ecosystem functioning, which in turn may help advance ecosystem-based management. However, while experimental studies have shown a positive effect of diversity on multifunctionality, observational studies from natural systems—particularly aquatic—are scarce. Here, we tested the relative importance of species richness and cover of rooted aquatic vegetation, as well as cover of the loose-lying form of the macroalgae bladderwrack (Fucus vesiculosus), for ecosystem...
Deadwood Reduces the Variation in Soil Microbial Communities Caused by Experimental Forest Gaps
Abstract Downed woody debris (DWD) creates heterogeneous microsites that are beneficial to enhancing biodiversity and that represent persistent nutrient and carbon pools. Windthrow events characteristic of northern deciduous forests naturally produce abundant DWD and canopy openings that enhance structural complexity, but group selection harvesting reduces DWD biomass despite promoting vertical structural complexity. We implemented a field experiment to test the response of the soil microbial community (SMC) to DWD addition in created gap openings to compare experimental...
Landscape-Scale Forest Reorganization Following Insect Invasion and Harvest Under Future Climate Change Scenarios
Abstract Emerald ash borer (EAB; Agrilus planipennis Farimaire) has been found in 35 US states and five Canadian provinces. This invasive beetle is causing widespread mortality to ash trees (Fraxinus spp.), which are an important timber product and ornamental tree, as well as a cultural resource for some Tribes. The damage will likely continue despite efforts to impede its spread. Further, widespread and rapid ash mortality as a result of EAB is expected to alter forest composition and structure, especially when coupled with the regional effects of climate change in...
Azorella Cushion Plants and Aridity are Important Drivers of Soil Microbial Communities in Andean Ecosystems
Abstract Cushion plants are specialized keystone species of alpine environments that can have a positive effect on ecosystem structure and function. However, we know relatively little about how cushion plants regulate the diversity and composition of soil microbial communities, major drivers of soil processes and ecosystem functioning. Identifying what factors drive the diversity and composition of soil microbial communities in high-elevation ecosystems is also fundamental to predict how global changes will affect their conservation and the services and functions they...