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Environmental Management 

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On Abandoning Hypothesis Testing in Environmental Standard Compliance Assessment
01. August 2018
Abstract We use basic characteristics of statistical significance test to argue the abandonment of hypothesis testing in environmental standard (or criterion) compliance assessment. The typical sample size used for environmental assessment is small, and the natural variation of many water quality constituent concentrations is high. These conditions lead to low statistical power of the hypothesis tests used in the assessment process. As a result, using hypothesis testing is often inefficient in detecting noncompliance. When a noncompliance is detected, it is frequently...
An Improved Approach for Forecasting Ecological Impacts from Future Drilling in Unconventional Shale Oil and Gas Plays
01. August 2018
Abstract Directional well drilling and hydraulic fracturing has enabled energy production from previously inaccessible resources, but caused vegetation conversion and landscape fragmentation, often in relatively undisturbed habitats. We improve forecasts of future ecological impacts from unconventional oil and gas play developments using a new, more spatially-explicit approach. We applied an energy production outlook model, which used geologic and economic data from thousands of wells and three oil price scenarios, to map future drilling patterns and evaluate the...
Does Wildfire Open a Policy Window? Local Government and Community Adaptation After Fire in the United States
01. August 2018
Abstract Becoming a fire adapted community that can coexist with wildfire is envisioned as a continuous, iterative process of adaptation, but it is unclear how communities may pursue adaptation. Experience with wildfire and other natural hazards suggests that disasters may open a “window of opportunity” leading to local government policy changes. We examined how destructive wildfire affected progress toward becoming fire adapted in eight locations in the United States. We found that community-level adaptation following destructive fires is most...
Analysis of Limiting Factors Across the Life Cycle of Delta Smelt ( Hypomesus transpacificus )
01. August 2018
Abstract We developed a mechanistic life-cycle model derived from the elicitation of multiple factors influencing the success of individual life-stages of the imperiled delta smelt (Hypomesus transpacificus). We discuss the relevance of limiting factors in population ecology and problems with additive models in detecting them. We identify limiting factors and assess their significance using a non-linear optimization routine, combined with traditional metrics to assess the value of covariates and model performance. After reviewing previous conceptual...
An Attempt to Find a Suitable Biomass for Biochar-Based Polypropylene Biocomposites
01. August 2018
Abstract Four biomass wastes (rice husk, coffee husk, coarse wool, and landfill wood) were added with biochar and polypropylene (PP) to manufacture biocomposites. Individual biomasses were tested for their combustion behavior using cone calorimeter. Biocomposites were analyzed for their fire/thermal, mechanical, and morphological properties. Wood had the most desirable comprehensive effect on both the mechanical and fire properties of composites. In particular, wood and biochar composite exhibited the highest values of tensile/flexural properties with a relatively low...
Neither Knowledge Deficit nor NIMBY: Understanding Opposition to Hydraulic Fracturing as a Nuanced Coalition in Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania (USA)
01. August 2018
Abstract The expansion of unconventional sources of natural gas across the world has generated public controversy surrounding fracking drilling methods. Public debates continue to reverberate through policy domains despite very inconclusive biophysical evidence of net harm. As a consequence, there is a need to test the hypothesis that resistance to fracking is due to the way it redistributes economic and environmental risks. As in many other communities, opposition to fracking is common in central Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania, (USA) but the rationale underpinning...
Quantifying the Hydrological Effect of Permitted Water Abstractions across Spatial Scales
01. August 2018
Abstract Water abstraction from rivers and aquifers has considerable potential to alter flow regimes, thereby influencing the physical, chemical, and ecological well-being of freshwater ecosystems. The economic and social benefits of abstraction need to be balanced against its potentially deleterious consequences for hydrologically-driven ecological functions, ecosystem services, cultural values, and recreation. In New Zealand, recent legislation states that limits for the use of water resources should be set for all waterbodies to manage the potential cumulative impacts...
Monitoring the Impact of Hedgerows and Grass Strips on the Performance of Multiple Ecosystem Service Indicators
01. August 2018
Abstract The importance of semi-natural vegetation elements in the agricultural landscape is increasingly recognized because they have the potential to enhance multiple ecosystem service delivery and biodiversity. However, there is great variability in the observed effects within and between studies. Also, little is known about the simultaneous delivery of multiple ecosystem services and biodiversity because most studies focus on monitoring one service at a time and in conditions specifically suited to observe this one service. In this study, the results are presented...
Willingness to Pay for Conservation of Transborder Migratory Species: A Case Study of the Mexican Free-Tailed Bat in the United States and Mexico
01. August 2018
Abstract We estimated U.S. and Mexican citizens’ willingness to pay (WTP) for protecting habitat for a transborder migratory species, the Mexican free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana), using the contingent valuation method. Few contingent valuation surveys have evaluated whether households in one country would pay to protect habitat in another country. This study addresses that gap. In our study, Mexican respondents were asked about their WTP for conservation of Mexican free-tailed bat habitat in Mexico and in the United States. Similarly, U.S. respondents...
Integrating Qualitative and Quantitative Methods in Participatory Modeling to Elicit Behavioral Drivers in Environmental Dilemmas: the Case of Air Pollution in Talca, Chile
01. August 2018
Abstract The aim of this paper is to contribute to the exploration of environmental modeling methods based on the elicitation of stakeholders’ mental models. This aim is motivated by the necessity to understand the dilemmas and behavioral rationales of individuals for supporting the management of environmental problems. The methodology developed for this paper integrates qualitative and quantitative methods by deploying focus groups for the elicitation of the behavioral rationales of the target population, and grounded theory to code the information gained in the...
Tackling the Relevance of Packaging in Life Cycle Assessment of Virgin Olive Oil and the Environmental Consequences of Regulation
01. August 2018
Abstract Production and consumption of olive oil is very important in Europe, being this product a basic element in the Mediterranean diet since long ago. The project objective is two-fold: a study of the contribution of virgin olive oils (VOOs) usual packaging to the whole life cycle of the product and a study of the environmental consequences of the Spanish Government regulation on VOO packaging. A life cycle assessment (LCA) according to ISO 14044 has been performed using the CML methodology for the impact assessment. The results show that the packaging influence...
Assessing the Hydrogeomorphic Effects of Environmental Flows using Hydrodynamic Modeling
01. August 2018
Abstract Water managers are increasingly using environmental flows (e-flows) as a tool to improve ecological conditions downstream from impoundments. Recent studies have called for e-flow approaches that explicitly consider impacts on hydrogeomorphic processes when developing management alternatives. Process-based approaches are particularly relevant in river systems that have been highly modified and where water supplies are over allocated. One-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamic models can be used to resolve hydrogeomorphic processes at different...
The Significance of Land Cover Delineation on Soil Erosion Assessment
01. August 2018
Abstract The study aims to evaluate the significance of land cover delineation on soil erosion assessment. To that end, RUSLE (Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation) was implemented at the Upper Acheloos River catchment, Western Central Greece, annually and multi-annually for the period 1965–92. The model estimates soil erosion as the linear product of six factors (R, K, LS, C, and P) considering the catchment’s climatic, pedological, topographic, land cover, and anthropogenic characteristics, respectively. The C factor was estimated using six alternative land use...
Environmental Behavior Among Russian Youth: The Role of Self-direction and Environmental Concern
01. August 2018
Abstract Previous research that has tried to identify the personal values that best explain variance in pro-environmental attitudes tended to focus on biospheric and universalism values. This paper examines the importance of self-direction as a value underlying young people’s inclination to adopt pro-environmental behaviors and environmental activism. We expect that individuals who emphasize a self-direction value, which fosters creativity, motivates innovation, and promotes coping with challenges, are likely to respond in more self-directed and autonomous ways to...
Climate research priorities for policy-makers, practitioners, and scientists in Georgia, USA
01. August 2018
Abstract Climate change has far-reaching effects on human and ecological systems, requiring collaboration across sectors and disciplines to determine effective responses. To inform regional responses to climate change, decision-makers need credible and relevant information representing a wide swath of knowledge and perspectives. The southeastern U. S. State of Georgia is a valuable focal area for study because it contains multiple ecological zones that vary greatly in land use and economic activities, and it is vulnerable to diverse climate change impacts. We identified...
The Transition of EU Water Policy Towards the Water Framework Directive’s Integrated River Basin Management Paradigm
09. Juli 2018
Abstract Introduced in 2000 to reform and rationalise water policy and management across the European Union (EU) Member States (MS), the Water Framework Directive (WFD), the EU’s flagship legislation on water protection, is widely acknowledged as the embodiment and vessel for the application of the Integrated River Basin Management (IRBM) paradigm. Its ecological objectives, perhaps even more challenging than the prospect of statutory catchment planning itself, were for all EU waters to achieve ‘good status’ by 2015 (except where exemptions applied) and the...
Correction to: Top-down, Bottom-up and Sideways: the Multilayered Complexities of Multi-level Actors Shaping Forest Governance and REDD+ Arrangements in Madre de Dios, Peru
01. Juli 2018
The article Top-down, bottom-up and sideways: the multilayered complexities of multi-level actors shaping forest governance and REDD+ arrangements in Madre de Dios, Peru, written by Dawn Rodriguez-Ward, Anne M. Larson, Harold Gordillo Ruesta, was originally published electronically on the publisher’s internet portal (currently SpringerLink) on 3 January 2018 without open access. With the author(s)’ decision to opt for Open Choice the copyright of the article changed on (25 April 2018) to © The Author(s) 2018 and the article is forthwith distributed under the terms of the Creative...
Advanced Value Chain Collaboration in Ghana’s Cocoa Sector: An Entry Point for Integrated Landscape Approaches?
01. Juli 2018
Abstract Value chain analyses have focused mainly on collaboration between chain actors, often neglecting collaboration “beyond the chain” with non-chain actors to tackle food security, poverty and sustainability issues in the landscapes in which these value chains are embedded. Comparing conventional and advanced value chain collaborations involving small-scale cocoa farmers in Ghana, this paper analyzes the merits of a more integrated approach toward value chain collaboration. It particularly asks whether advanced value chain collaboration targeting...
Top-down, Bottom-up and Sideways: The Multilayered Complexities of Multi-level Actors Shaping Forest Governance and REDD+ Arrangements in Madre de Dios, Peru
01. Juli 2018
Abstract This study examines the role multilevel governance plays in the adoption of sustainable landscape management initiatives in emerging arrangements aimed at reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+). It sheds light on the challenges these multiple layers of actors and interests encounter around such alternatives in a subnational jurisdiction. Through transcript analysis of 93 interviews with institutional actors in the region of Madre de Dios, Peru, particularly with regard to five sites of land-use change, we identified the multiple...
From Product to Place—Spatializing governance in a commodified landscape
01. Juli 2018
Abstract This article analyzes the potential for landscape governance in large-scale commodity landscapes in Indonesia. It conceptualizes landscape governance as the spatialization of governance, which entails the interplay between natural-spatial conditions of place, public-private actor constellations, and policy responses. The article presents the case of a commodified oil palm landscape in West Kalimantan, where a potentially new type of landscape governance is emerging out of the experimental activities of an ecologically responsible commercial enterprise. It...