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Land - Open Access Journal by MDPI


Land is an international and crossdisciplinary Open Access journal of land use/land change, land management, land system science and landscape, etc. published quarterly online by MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, in Basel. Land is affiliated to the International Association for Landscape Ecology (IALE) and their members receive 10% discounts of the article processing charge. Below you'll find the most recent articles published in Land:


Land
Latest open access articles published in Land at https://www.mdpi.com/journal/land
Land, Vol. 10, Pages 781: Research on the Impact of Land Circulation on the Income Gap of Rural Households: Evidence from CHIP
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With the continued development of the economy, the income gap among Chinese rural households continues to widen. The land system plays a decisive role in developing “agriculture, rural areas and farmers” and land circulation is a factor in the increase in income inequality among farm households. Based on the 2013 China Household Income Project (CHIP), this article used the re-centered influence function (RIF) regression method to empirically test the impact of rural land circulation on...
Land, Vol. 10, Pages 780: Analysis and Evaluation of the Spatial Structure of Cittaslow Towns on the Example of Selected Regions in Central Italy and North-Eastern Poland
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Cittaslow International promotes harmonious development of small towns based on sustainable relationships between economic growth, protection of local traditions, cultural heritage and the environment, and an improvement in the quality of local life. The aim of this study was to analyze and evaluate the differences and similarities in the spatial structure of Cittaslow towns in the Italian regions of Tuscany and Umbria and the Polish region of Warmia and Mazury. The study examined historical...
Land, Vol. 10, Pages 779: Dynamic Villages in the Hinterland of a Polycentric Region: Case Study of the Górnośląsko-Zagłębiowska Metropolis in Poland
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This article examines the growth of the labour market and entrepreneurship in a metropolitan area. In particular, the study attempts to answer how the economy of the rural regions is developing in the hinterland of a large urban complex in Southern Poland, which is transforming from a post-industrial conurbation into a metropolitan area. The study applied Florence’s local specialization index, statistical measures, dynamics indexes, and Pearson’s correlation index. The research results...
Land, Vol. 10, Pages 778: Satisfaction with Selected Indicators of the Quality of Urban Space by Polonia in the Greater Toronto Area
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The main objective of this article is to determine the quality of life of Polonia living in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA), with particular emphasis on urban quality, which influences their assessment of the standard of living in this city. The presented results of the research are based on a survey questionnaire conducted with the participation of 583 respondents. The respondents evaluated, among others: accessibility to recreational tourism in the city, public transport, possibilities of...
Land, Vol. 10, Pages 777: Forest Transition and Its Dynamics in Subtropical Chongqing, China since 1990s
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This research aims to advance our understanding towards forest transition, which is about the shift from net deforestation to net reforestation over a given area during certain period, through a case study of a western city in China from 1990 to 2015. Three main contributions are made to the theory and practice of forest land management. First, this research enriches forest transition theory with a meso-level exploration on forest land change in subtropic Chongqing, which echoes the “U...
Land, Vol. 10, Pages 776: Evolution of Agricultural Production in Portugal during 1850–2018: A Geographical and Historical Perspective
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Agricultural statistical data enable the detection and interpretation of the development of agriculture and the food supply situation over time, which is essential for food security evaluation in any country. Based on the historical agricultural statistics, this study produces a long spatial time-series with annual production values of three cereals relevant to global food security—wheat, maize, and rice, aiming to provide geographical and historical perspectives. Therefore, we...
Land, Vol. 10, Pages 775: Red-Listed Ecosystem Status of Interior Wetbelt and Inland Temperate Rainforest of British Columbia, Canada
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The Interior Wetbelt (IWB) of British Columbia, which includes the globally rare Inland Temperate Rainforest (ITR), contains primary forests poorly attributed and neglected in conservation planning. We evaluated the IWB and ITR using four IUCN Red List of Ecosystems Criteria: geographic distribution, environmental degradation (abiotic and biotic factors), and likelihood of ecosystem collapse. Clearcut logging (3.2M ha) represented 57% of all anthropogenic disturbances, reducing potential...
Land, Vol. 10, Pages 774: Conservation, Restoration, and Sustainable Use of Biodiversity Based on Habitat Quality Monitoring: A Case Study on Jeju Island, South Korea (1989–2019)
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Biodiversity loss is progressing despite biodiversity being essential for human survival, prosperity, and well-being. Conservation, restoration, and sustainable use of the habitat, given that its change is the most prominent factor causing the deterioration of biodiversity, represents a highly effective way of securing biodiversity. Therefore, we assessed and monitored habitat quality as a proxy for biodiversity with habitat quantity in Jeju Island, South Korea. We used an InVEST model with...
Land, Vol. 10, Pages 773: Chinese Pattern of Urban Development Quality Assessment: A Perspective Based on National Territory Spatial Planning Initiatives
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The State Council of the People’s Republic of China issued the National Territory Spatial Planning Outline (2016–2030), which is a fundamental guide and blueprint for China to achieve its Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Based on its sustainable-city initiatives, this paper establishes a “four-space (4S)” assessment framework, and measured the urban development quality (UDQ) of 336 cities in China. Then we analyzed the spatial patterns of UDQ, and identified the main obstacles...
Land, Vol. 10, Pages 772: Developing an Integrative Theoretical Framework for Climate Proofing Spatial Planning across Sectors, Policy Levels, and Planning Areas
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Spatial planning holds a key role in preventing or mitigating the impacts of climate change on both cities and rural areas, taking a forward-thinking and holistic approach to urban and regional development. As such, spatial planning deals with challenges occurring at different scales and across sectors. The international literature points out the need for horizontal and vertical cooperation to tackle climate change impacts. This paper discusses the general challenges for climate proofing...
Land, Vol. 10, Pages 770: Agroforestry-Based Ecosystem Services
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Agroforestry, land use at the agriculture-forestry interface that implies the presence of trees on farms and/or farmers in forests, has a history that may be as old as agriculture, but as an overarching label and topic of formal scientific analysis, it is in its fifth decade [...]
Land, Vol. 10, Pages 771: Land Cover Mapping from Colorized CORONA Archived Greyscale Satellite Data and Feature Extraction Classification
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Land cover mapping is often performed via satellite or aerial multispectral/hyperspectral datasets. This paper explores new potentials for the characterisation of land cover from archive greyscale satellite sources by using classification analysis of colourised images. In particular, a CORONA satellite image over Larnaca city in Cyprus was used for this study. The DeOldify Deep learning method embedded in the MyHeritage platform was initially applied to colourise the CORONA image. The new...
Land, Vol. 10, Pages 769: Landscape Pattern and Ecological Network Structure in Urban Green Space Planning: A Case Study of Fuzhou City
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During the process of urbanization, many green spaces are fragmented for other uses. The key problems for researchers and planners are reducing the fragmentation of green spaces, constructing urban ecological networks, and maintaining sustainable environments to cope with the rapid urbanization process. This paper analyzes Fuzhou, China as a case study of the effects of urbanization, and reviews three epochs in Fuzhou: 2000, 2010, and 2021. First, the integration degree of landscape pattern...
Land, Vol. 10, Pages 768: Early Response of Soil Properties under Different Restoration Strategies in Tropical Hotspot
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The Brazilian Atlantic Forest has undergone adverse land-use change due to deforestation for urbanization and agriculture. Numerous restoration initiatives have been taken to restore its ecosystem services. Deforested areas have been restored through active intervention or natural regeneration. Understanding the impact of those different reforestation approaches on soil quality should provide important scientific and practical conclusions on increasing forest cover in the Brazilian Atlantic...
Land, Vol. 10, Pages 767: Landscape Pattern Evolution and Its Response to Human Disturbance in a Newly Metropolitan Area: A Case Study in Jin-Yi Metropolitan Area
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The impact of human interference on the ecological environment has attracted a significant amount of attention. In this study, hemeroby index (HI) was constructed to quantify the degree of human disturbance, and the relationship between HI and landscape pattern index was explored in a newly metropolitan area. The main objectives of this study were to analyze the temporal and spatial characteristics of landscape pattern and human disturbance in the process of urbanization of county-level...
Land, Vol. 10, Pages 766: Concept of Soil Moisture Ratio for Determining the Spatial Distribution of Soil Moisture Using Physiographic Parameters of a Basin and Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs)
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The results of investigations on shaping the soil moisture ratio in the mountain basin of the Mątny stream located in the Gorce region, Poland, are presented. A soil moisture ratio was defined as a ratio of soil moisture in a given point in a basin to the one located in a base point located on a watershed. Investigations were carried out, using a TDR device, for 379 measuring points located in an irregular network, in the 0–25 cm soil layer. Values of the soil moisture ratio fluctuated...
Land, Vol. 10, Pages 765: Development of a Land Use Carbon Inventory for Agricultural Soils in the Canadian Province of Ontario
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Globally, agricultural soils are being evaluated for their role in climate change regulation as a potential sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) through sequestration of organic carbon as soil organic matter. Scientists and policy analysts increasingly seek to develop programs and policies which recognize the importance of mitigation of climate change and insurance of ecological sustainability when managing agricultural soils. In response, many countries are exploring options to develop...
Land, Vol. 10, Pages 764: Maintaining the Many Societal Benefits of Rangelands: The Case of Hawaiʻi
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Well-managed rangelands provide important economic, environmental, and cultural benefits. Yet, many rangelands worldwide are experiencing pressures of land-use change, overgrazing, fire, and drought, causing rapid degradation. These pressures are especially acute in the Hawaiian Islands, which we explore as a microcosm with some broadly relevant lessons. Absent stewardship, land in Hawaiʻi is typically subject to degradation through the spread and impacts of noxious invasive plant species...
Land, Vol. 10, Pages 763: Does Livelihood Capital Influence the Livelihood Strategy of Herdsmen? Evidence from Western China
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The deterioration of grassland ecology is threatening the livelihood of herdsmen and increasing their rates of poverty. This study aims to explore the characteristics of herdsmen’s livelihood and the impact of livelihood capital and environmental perception on livelihood strategy selection. Based on 453 herdsmen households in the Province of Gansu and Qinghai, five types of livelihood capital were measured under the sustainable livelihoods framework. The influence of herdsmen’s...
Land, Vol. 10, Pages 762: Sources of and Control Measures for PTE Pollution in Soil at the Urban Fringe in Weinan, China
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The environment of the urban fringe is complex and frangible. With the acceleration of industrialization and urbanization, the urban fringe has become the primary space for urban expansion, and the intense human activities create a high risk of potentially toxic element (PTE) pollution in the soil. In this study, 138 surface soil samples were collected from a region undergoing rapid urbanization and construction—Weinan, China. Concentrations of As, Pb, Cr, Cu, and Ni (Inductively Coupled...
Land, Vol. 10, Pages 756: Study on Land Consolidation Zoning in Hubei Province Based on the Coupling of Neural Network and Cluster Analysis
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Land consolidation zoning is the basis of land reclamation planning and provides a precondition for land management work. Zoning is beneficial to scientific decision-making regarding the use of cultivated land resources, and helps to ensure the quality and production level of cultivated land. Hence, land consolidation zoning is of national significance in terms of safeguarding food security. In this paper, an indicator system for land evaluation and zoning is described based on indicators of...
Land, Vol. 10, Pages 758: Assessing Ecological Disturbance in Neotropical Forest Landscapes Using High-Level Diversity and High-Level Functionality: Surprising Outcomes from a Case Study with Spider Assemblages
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Spiders have been increasingly used as environmental and ecological indicators in conservation and ecosystem management. In the Neotropics, there is a shortage of information regarding spiders’ taxonomies and ecological responses to anthropogenic disturbances. To unravel these hitches, we tested the possibility of using high-level diversity and high-level functionality indicators to evaluate spider assemblages’ sensitivity to landscape changes. This approach, if proven informative, might...
Land, Vol. 10, Pages 761: Semi-Natural Areas on Post-Mining Brownfields as an Opportunity to Strengthen the Attractiveness of a Small Town. An Example of Radzionków in Southern Poland
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The socio-economic and political changes of the end of the 20th century in Central and Eastern Europe had significant impacts on the transformation of urban spaces, especially in industrial and mining towns. The article attempts to explain the essence of these changes concerning the spatial development of—a small post-mining town in southern Poland. This article evaluates urban development policy in response to the significant land-use changes in the small post-mining city of Radzionków...
Land, Vol. 10, Pages 760: Multi-Year Mapping of Disturbance and Reclamation Patterns over Tronox’s Hillendale Mine, South Africa with DBEST and Google Earth Engine
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This study was devised to examine the pattern of disturbance and reclamation by Tronox, which instigated a closure process for its Hillendale mine site in South Africa, where they recovered zirconium- and titanium-bearing minerals from 2001 to 2013. Restoring mined-out areas is of great importance in South Africa, with its ominous record of almost 6000 abandoned mines since the 1860s. In 2002, the government enacted the Mineral and Petroleum Resources Development Act (No. 28 of 2002) to...
Land, Vol. 10, Pages 759: High Spatial-Temporal Resolution Data across Large Scales Are Needed to Transform Our Understanding of Ecosystem Services
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Many assessments of ecosystem services (ESs; nature’s contribution to people [...]