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Urban Ecosystems 

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Greenspace sites conserve taxonomic and functional diversity of dung beetles in an urbanized landscape in the Brazilian Cerrado
14. Januar 2021
Abstract Urbanization transforms natural ecosystems, creating an environmental mosaic, characterized by native vegetation sites mixed with constructed sites. In this study, we compared dung beetle taxonomic and functional diversity between residential and greenspace sites (remnants of native vegetation) in an urban landscape in the Brazilian Cerrado. We sampled dung beetles in February (2013–2014 – 2015) in four sites of remnants of native Cerado (here called “greenspace”) and four residential sites in the city of Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Greenspace...
Records of rat control campaigns in a food market with the largest seafood trading volume worldwide
12. Januar 2021
Abstract Brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) and roof rats (Rattus rattus) are among the most common mammals worldwide. Little is known about the effects of season on rat population size, which is important for understanding rat ecology and/or performing effective rat control campaigns. Tsukiji Market was a metropolitan central wholesale market in Tokyo and was located within 1 km from one of the biggest downtown areas. To control rats in the market, a pest management professional exclusively conducted annual campaigns at two fixed time points for many years. In addition, the...
Anthropogenic noise and atmospheric absorption of sound induce amplitude shifts in the songs of Southern House Wren ( Troglodytes aedon musculus )
11. Januar 2021
Abstract Birdsong is an important feature that mediates several aspects of bird reproduction, such as mate choice, territory defense, and individual recognition. Any factor that impairs vocal transmission through the environment may also impair conspecific recognition and thus reduce the effectiveness of reproduction. In this scenario, birds inhabiting urban environments might be subject to different selective pressures on their vocal amplitude due to acoustic barriers in the song transmission, such as excessive background noise and abnormal atmospheric absorption of...
How do heat and flood risk drive residential green infrastructure implementation in Phoenix, Arizona?
09. Januar 2021
Abstract Green infrastructure is an increasingly popular strategy to simultaneously address challenges associated with urbanization and global environmental change, including increased flooding and rising temperatures. While many cities aim to expand green infrastructure to deliver  ecosystem services, their impacts will be limited without significant uptake on private property. Most studies and programs to date focus on public land, so little is known about what would motivate private residents to implement green infrastructure. This study addresses this gap, combining...
Plant-pollinator networks in Australian urban bushland remnants are not structurally equivalent to those in residential gardens
08. Januar 2021
Abstract Urbanisation is a prominent and increasing form of land-use change, with the potential to disrupt the interactions between pollinators such as bees and the flowering plants that they visit. This in turn may cause cascading local extinctions and have consequences for pollination services. Network approaches go beyond simple metrics of abundance and species richness, enabling understanding of how the structure of plant-pollinator communities are affected by urbanisation. Here we compared pollination networks between native vegetation (bushland) remnants and...
An avian urban morphotype: how the city environment shapes great tit morphology at different life stages
07. Januar 2021
Abstract Urbanization is a worldwide phenomenon associated with tremendous modifications of natural habitats. Understanding how city dwelling species are affected by those changes is becoming a pressing issue. We presently lack fine scale spatio-temporal studies investigating the impact of urbanization across different life stages and along urbanization gradients. Based on 8 years of monitoring of urban and forest great tits (Parus major), we investigated how city life shapes morphological characteristics at different life stages in the city versus the forest, and within...
No overall effect of urbanization on nest-dwelling arthropods of great tits ( Parus major ).
07. Januar 2021
Abstract Urbanization has been shown to strongly affect community composition of various taxa with potentially strong shifts in ecological interactions, including those between hosts and parasites. We investigated the effect of urbanization on the composition of arthropods in nests of great tits in Flanders, Belgium. These nests contain taxonomically and functionally diverse arthropod communities including parasites, predators, detritivores and accidental commensals. Using a standardized hierarchical sampling design with subplots (200 m × 200 m) nested in plots...
The resilient frugivorous fauna of an urban forest fragment and its potential role in vegetation enrichment
06. Januar 2021
Abstract Anthropocentric defaunation affects critical ecological processes, such as seed dispersal, putting ecosystems and biomes at risk, and leading to habitat impoverishment. Diverse restoration techniques could reverse the process of habitat impoverishment. However, in most of the restoration efforts, only vegetation cover is targeted. Fauna and flora are treated as isolated components, neglecting a key component of ecosystems’ functioning, the ecological interactions. We tested whether the resilient frugivorous generalist fauna can improve habitat quality by...
Urban ecosystems and ecosystem services in megacity Dhaka: mapping and inventory analysis
06. Januar 2021
Abstract Urban ecosystems and ecosystem services have received little research attention in South Asian countries where rapid urban development is currently problematic. We developed a typology of urban ecosystems and an inventory of current ecosystem services for Dhaka – the capital of Bangladesh. Our observations, surveys, analyses, and evaluation revealed a diversity of urban ecosystems including khal (canal), pond, wetland, cultivated land, park/rooftop garden, playground/field, open space/vacant plot, roadside trees, and graveyards. Important provisioning services...
Aspects of the ecology and behaviour of a potential urban exploiter, the southern tree agama, Acanthocercus atricollis
05. Januar 2021
Abstract Urbanisation has caused significant alterations to ecosystems, generally resulting in decreased biodiversity. However, certain animal species persist and thrive in urban environments by making use of available opportunities, anthropogenic resources, infrastructure and increased ambient and surface temperatures. These species are known as urban exploiters. We investigated the southern tree agama, Acanthocercus atricollis population trends, habitat use and basking and shading behaviour in a high-density urban human-populated housing metropolitan area in...
Characterizing the landscape compositions of urban wildlife encounters: the case of the stone marten ( Martes foina ), the red fox ( Vulpes vulpes ) and the hedgehog ( Erinaceus europaeus ) in the...
04. Januar 2021
Abstract As urbanization continues to expand worldwide, more and more urban areas become home to wild animals able to adapt to city life, generating a growing need for information. In the Greater Paris area, the existence of three wild mammals (the stone marten, Martes foina, the red fox, Vulpes vulpes and the hedgehog, Erinaceus europaeus) is attested. However, little is known regarding their presence. The research reported in this study aims to shed light upon their co-existence with city dwellers. Specifically, the areas where contacts between these species and the...
Behavioral responses of rural and urban greater white-toothed shrews ( Crocidura russula ) to sound disturbance
03. Januar 2021
Abstract The development of urban areas imposes challenges that wildlife must adapt to in order to persist in these new habitats. One of the greatest changes brought by urbanization has been an increase in anthropogenic noise, with negative consequences for the natural behavior of animals. Small mammals are particularly vulnerable to urbanization and noise, despite some species having successfully occupied urban environments. To understand some of the traits that have enabled small mammals to deal with the consequences of urbanization, we compared the behavioral responses...
Classes of protection in urban forest fragments are effectiveless in structuring butterfly assemblages: landscape and forest structure are far better predictors
03. Januar 2021
Abstract Urbanization is a major cause of biodiversity loss and disconnection between people and nature. For this reason, the creation and maintenance of green areas as part of the urban landscape is a common practice in cities around the world. These green areas are generally a result of particular public policies regarding how these areas can be accessed, maintained, and how they are connected to other natural fragments in the city. In an effort to investigate aspects of the ecology of such green areas of the city of Curitiba, southern Brazil, the present study measured...
The role of woodpeckers (family: Picidae) as ecosystem engineers in urban parks: a case study in the city of Madrid (Spain)
03. Januar 2021
Abstract Many species of the family Picidae, such as the woodpeckers, excavate the tree-cavities where they nest. Frequently the cavities are used during a single breeding season and subsequently abandoned, which allows their use by non-excavator species for nesting or roosting. Here we analyze the role of woodpeckers as providers of nesting and refuge places in two urban parks in the city of Madrid. The environmental characteristics of the woodpecker nest-sites were also studied. Prior to the breeding season 75 trees bearing woodpecker-excavated cavities and 142 control...
A sustainable urban regeneration project to protect biodiversity
30. Dezember 2020
Abstract The sustainable urban redevelopment project to protect biodiversity was developed to regenerate the external spaces of an ancient rural farmhouse, Villa Framarino, in the regional Natural Park of Lama Balice, a shallow erosive furrow (lama) rich in biodiversity, between two suburbs of the city of Bari (Apulia, Italy) and close to the city airport. This work includes a complex system of activities aimed not only at a spatial revaluation, necessary to relaunch the urban image, but it is accompanied by interventions of a cultural, social, economic, environmental and...
Evaluation of the importance of ornamental plants for pollinators in urban and suburban areas in Stuttgart, Germany
26. Dezember 2020
Abstract Urban landscapes are often characterized by a wide range of diverse flowering plants consisting of native and exotic plants. These flower-rich habitats have proven to be particularly valuable for urban pollinating insects. However, the ability of ornamental plants in supporting urban pollinator communities is still not well documented. For this study, we established flower beds at 13 different urban testing sites, which were planted with identical sets of ornamental garden plants. The pollinator visitation patterns were then observed throughout the summer seasons...
Demographic drivers of Norway rat populations from urban slums in Brazil
18. Dezember 2020
Abstract The Norway rat is a globally distributed pest, known for its resilience to eradication and control programs. Efficient population control, especially in urban settings, is dependent on knowledge of rat demography and population ecology. We analyzed the relationship between four demographic outcomes, estimated by live-trapping data, and fine-scale environmental features measured at the capture site. Wounds, a proxy for agonistic interactions, were associated with mature individuals. Areas with environmental features favorable to rats, such as open sewers and...
Urbanization does not affect green space bird species richness in a mid-sized city
10. Dezember 2020
Abstract Urbanization is one of the most intensive forms of landscape and habitat transformation, resulting in species loss, and taxonomic and functional homogenization of different communities. Whilst green infrastructure (the network of natural and semi-natural areas in cities) has been studied extensively in terms of specific features that promote biodiversity, there have been no studies that have assessed how species richness in different types of green space (GS) varies with increasing levels of urbanization in the surrounding matrix. We studied the effects of...
Influence of urbanization on the avian species-area relationship: insights from the breeding birds of Rome
03. Dezember 2020
Abstract The species-area relationship (SAR) is one of the most investigated patterns in ecology and conservation biology, yet there is no study testing how different levels of urbanization influence its shape. Here we tested the impact of urbanization on avian SARs along a rural-urban gradient using the breeding birds of Rome (Central Italy). We divided the city into 360 cells of 1 km2. Each cell was classified as rural, suburban or urban using the proportion of impervious surface calculated from remote sensing data. For each of these three landscape categories, we...
Correction to: Colonization and habitat selection of a declining farmland species in urban areas
01. Dezember 2020
In our paper, using distance sampling, we estimated the population density of hares in Aarhus city to 6.8 hares/km2.