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Urban Ecosystems 

Latest Results for Urban Ecosystems
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Exploring the ability of urban householders to correctly identify nocturnal mammals
08. April 2021
Abstract Urban landscapes present substantial opportunities for biodiversity conservation with residential gardens offering some of the greatest potential conservation gains given that they represent a significant proportion of the total greenspace in urbanised landscapes. However, knowledge of wildlife ecology within gardens remains scarce, likely due to the difficulties associated with field ecologists accessing privately owned areas. Citizen-sourced data presents an alternative approach to typical field-based investigations and could be used to develop an extensive...
Urban ecosystem services in strategic planning in Swedish municipalities
07. April 2021
Abstract Research to date on urban ecosystem services has mainly been conducted in large cities, particularly in China, the USA and some European countries. This study examined the provision of urban ecosystem services in a Swedish municipality context, based on interviews with municipal stakeholders in strategic management and planning from six municipalities and a review of existing publications readily available to practitioners. The analysis focused on (1) the ecosystem services explicitly covered, (2) whether multifunctionality was covered and specific synergies and...
Mismatching streetscapes: Woody plant composition across a Neotropical city
01. April 2021
Abstract With the establishment and expansion of urban areas, many plants are lost, while some are gained. Understanding plant species richness and composition in cities, including planted elements along streetscapes, is a priority for urban vegetation management and biodiversity conservation. In this study, we assessed the compositional dissimilarity of street trees and shrubs (namely woody vegetation) in the Neotropical city of Xalapa (Mexico) through a citywide sampling scheme. We also evaluated potential relationships between woody vegetation compositional...
The influence of urbanization on morphological traits in the Balsas Basin Whiptail lizard ( Aspidoscelis costatus costatus )
01. April 2021
Abstract Urbanization is the process of wildlands transformation for development of human settlements and the resulting ecosystem presents changes that could affect animal populations. Aspidoscelis costatus costatus is an endemic Mexican lizard (Family Teiidae); preliminary observations show possible effects of urbanization on this lizard. We collected 50 A. costatus costatus from an urban area in Ixtapan de la Sal, Estado de México, that were compared with 56 A. costatus costatus from wildlands close to Ixtapan de la Sal and Tonatico, Estado de México. Weight...
Impacts of the remnant sizes, forest types, and landscape patterns of surrounding areas on woody plant diversity of urban remnant forest patches
01. April 2021
Abstract Remnant forests in urban areas are hotspots of urban biodiversity. However, the survival and integrity of many remnant forests are currently at risk. Better knowledge of the interactions between remnant forests and urban environments is urgently needed for guiding the conservation effort. In this study, we intend to answer the question: how do patch attributes and landscape patterns of surrounding environments affect the taxonomic diversity of woody plants in urban forest remnants? We surveyed the woody plant species in 240 sample plots in 54 remnant forest...
Vegetation structure drives taxonomic diversity and functional traits of birds in urban private native forest fragments
01. April 2021
Abstract Many studies in urban landscapes have revealed that vegetation structure influences the taxonomic diversity and traits of birds and drives greater bird richness in greenspaces. However, most of these studies have been carried out mainly in public spaces. Private lands represent large components of cityscapes worldwide, and so understanding the role they play in the maintenance of biodiversity, and how vegetation traits drive the ecological attributes of birds, remain poorly known. Here we identified local factors of vegetation related to the bird fauna of urban...
The relationship between pollinator community and pollination services is mediated by floral abundance in urban landscapes
01. April 2021
Abstract It is often argued that biodiversity and ecosystem functioning are linked by both habitat and species composition, and that this relationship is particularly critical for mobile ecosystem service providers. This may be especially true for pollinators, which are essential for the reproduction of the majority of flowering plant species, are highly mobile, and can exhibit dramatically different foraging behaviors across ecosystems. Understanding how habitat and community composition impact pollination is especially relevant in urban environments where pollinators...
Reap what you sow: local plant composition mediates bumblebee foraging patterns within urban garden landscapes
01. April 2021
Abstract Although urban gardens are often celebrated for supporting bee abundance and diversity within cities, little is known about how garden management and urbanization levels influence bee foraging behavior and ability to utilize resources within these landscapes. Specifically, the preferences and diet breadth of bees may depend critically on local and landscape conditions in human-managed, urban environments. To understand how foraging patterns and pollen preferences are influenced by urban landscape composition, we first examined if bees visit plants grown within...
The contribution of urban community gardens to food availability in Emfuleni Local Municipality, Gauteng Province
01. April 2021
Abstract This study investigated the contribution of urban community gardens to food availability in Emfuleni Local Municipality, Gauteng Province of South Africa. The objectives were to determine the ability of the urban community gardens to produce vegetables throughout the year and to assess the contribution of these gardens to food availability. It was conducted in six (6) townships of Emfuleni Local Municipality by means of semi-structured survey questionnaires. A sample of 254 participants was randomly drawn from 418 urban farmers. A descriptive analysis technique...
Medium and large mammal conservation in the City of Cape Town: factors influencing species richness in urban nature reserves
01. April 2021
Abstract Urbanisation is associated with the loss and fragmentation of natural land, the disruption of ecosystem functioning and services, and the loss of biodiversity. Cape Town is situated in a global biodiversity hotspot, with high rates of endemism, but both agricultural and housing demands are increasing pressure on remaining patches of natural land and consequently the biodiversity they support. The aims of this study were to use a standardised camera trap survey to determine which native medium and large mammal species still survive in 12 City of Cape Town (CCT...
Diet, ecological role and potential ecosystem services of the fruit bat, Cynopterus brachyotis , in a tropical city
01. April 2021
Abstract Urbanisation is happening at an unprecedented pace, affecting ecological interactions between frugivores and plants by altering the species composition of plant communities. Cynopterus brachyotis, a bat common in cities, is known to provide important ecosystem services, such as seed dispersal. Studying its diet offers insights into how ecological roles of bats in tropical landscapes could be affected by urbanisation. We documented the diet of C. brachyotis in Singapore, and tested the hypothesis that urbanisation decreases dietary breadth and proportion of...
Urbanization is associated with differences in age class structure in black-capped chickadees ( Poecile atricapillus )
01. April 2021
Abstract Urbanization has a tremendous impact on the environment from landscape features to distribution of food resources. Such drastic environmental changes can result in community, population, and individual differences between urban and non-urban animals. Urbanization has been associated with differential mortality and reproduction and therefore, differences in age structure may also be expected across urban gradients. Additionally, many traits studied along urban gradients, such as morphology, can also differ across age classes, and as such, age is an important...
Chicago’s fish assemblage over ~30 years – more fish and more native species
01. April 2021
Abstract How fish assemblages change over time in highly-modified urban rivers, where physical and chemical properties rarely mimic non-urban systems, has sparsely been documented. Data have been collected on fishes within the boundaries of the Chicago Metropolitan area routinely since the mid-1980’s. Representing fish assemblages in one of the largest cities of America, this dataset offers the ability to investigate and track changes in assemblage composition in an urbanized river. To this end, multivariate modelling, as well as various visualization techniques, were...
Carrion increases pollination service across an urban gradient
01. April 2021
Abstract The world is increasingly urban, and urbanization alters the abundance and distribution of resources important to mutualist pollinators. Pollinators require distinct and diverse resources throughout their life cycle, including larval habitat and adult food resources. However, the relationship among urbanization, pollinator resource distribution, pollinator abundance, and pollination service provision are uncertain. Here, we test whether the presence of rat carrion facilitates pollination service to a non-native plant, Ammi majus L. (Apiaceae), by bolstering the...
Comparison of the mustard oil and electrical methods for sampling earthworm communities in rural and urban soils
01. April 2021
Abstract In the context of global changes, interest is growing in biodiversity in urban areas. However, sampling biodiversity in urbanized environments faces challenges. For soil organisms such as earthworms, sampling methods exist and have been tested in natural and agricultural areas, yet their efficiency and acceptability in urbanized areas has not been sufficiently addressed. This study compared the efficiency of two classical methods (with different environmental impact) for the quantitative assessment of earthworm populations in landscape contexts with varying...
The interaction of imperviousness and habitat heterogeneity drives bird richness patterns in south Asian cities
01. April 2021
Abstract Bird species richness has often been used as an indicator of urbanisation effects on biodiversity in North America and Europe, but similar studies are rare in rapidly urbanising regions in the tropics. Here we assess the effect of different urban environmental factors on local resident bird species richness at different spatial extents in South Asian cities. Bird data at 57 urban locations distributed across 11 cities were retrieved from the available literature. Different variables assessing the degree of urbanisation and urban habitat factors were measured...
More losses than gains in ground-nesting bees over 60 years of urbanization
01. April 2021
Abstract Along with agricultural intensification, urbanization is often implicated in bee declines worldwide. While the vast majority of studies investigate how bee assemblages respond to urbanization across different spatial scales, very few attempts have used a temporal comparison to evaluate the impact of urbanization. The city of Curitiba in southern Brazil is unique for having long-term data of bees, and thus is a good model for studying urban temporal changes. The main goal of this study is to investigate how a ground-nesting assemblage responded to six decades of...
Tolerance and avoidance of urban cover in a southern California suburban raptor community over five decades
01. April 2021
Abstract We explored nest site placement and re-use relative to ornamental tree usage and urbanization level in a diurnal raptor community in southern California (USA) during three discrete time periods spanning five decades (1971–2018). Re-use of prior years’ nests varied among species, with Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) and American Kestrels (Falco sparverius) showing moderate re-use rates (ca. 30%), and Red-shouldered Hawks (Buteo lineatus), and Cooper’s Hawks (Accipiter cooperii) showing almost none. Nearly all nests were in native and...
Influence of environmental factors on bird diversity in greenspaces in an Amazonian city
01. April 2021
Abstract In the Amazon, urbanization is increasing rapidly, and greenspaces have become important sites to sustain bird diversity in urban areas. However, there is still little information for this bioregion on the relationship of birds with greenspace characteristics and, consequently, on what management measures are needed to maintain biodiversity in these spaces. Here, we assessed the association between bird diversity and environmental factors in 18 greenspaces in the city of Florencia, Colombia. As response variables, we include bird species richness and abundance...
The phenology of the endangered Nogal ( Juglans neotropica Diels) in Bogota and its conservation implications in the urban forest
Abstract Nogal, Juglans neotropica Diels is an endangered woody angiosperm of tropical origin. Several trees of this species have been planted in Bogotá City, Colombia. The field of study is urban tree phenology. The research question of the current work is when do phenological changes occur throughout the year in urban nogal trees in the northern portion of Bogotá, Colombia? The main research objective was to characterize the phenological changes of nogal according to the German (Biologische Bundesanstalt, Bundessortenamt und CHemische Industrie) scale. The study area...