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Urban Ecosystems 

Latest Results for Urban Ecosystems
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Author Correction: Estimating carbon storage in urban forests of New York City
01. Juni 2022
Ecology with Cities
01. Juni 2022
The urban myth: A lack of agreement between definitions of urban environments used in wildlife health research may contribute to inconsistent epidemiological findings
01. Juni 2022
Abstract Worldwide, urbanization and associated anthropogenic land use change is increasing. This has implications for the ecology of wildlife diseases including zoonoses, and relevance for wildlife management, urban planning, and public health. Therefore, wildlife health in ‘urban’ environments is an increasing focus within the published literature. However, researchers use a variety of different classification strategies since there is no established definition of an ‘urban’ environment. It is unclear the degree to which different interpretations of the term...
Citizen science in cities: an overview of projects focused on urban Australia
01. Juni 2022
Abstract Citizen science offers a unique opportunity to connect urban-dwellers with the often hidden natural world upon their doorsteps and to contribute to authentic research that increases knowledge of urban ecology and biodiversity. With the majority of Australia’s population residing in large cities, this diverse potential pool of participants in science creates a significant opportunity to increase the spatial and temporal scale of research. Herein, we provide an overview of Australian urban citizen science projects based on an analysis of the projects listed in...
Noise attenuation varies by interactions of land cover and season in an urban/peri-urban landscape
01. Juni 2022
Abstract Anthropogenic noise is increasing worldwide because of growing human populations, transportation, and resource extraction. This excessive noise negatively impacts humans and wildlife. To mitigate noise pollution, the use of vegetation in urban planning is becoming increasingly common. However, noise attenuation can be influenced by poorly understood differences in land cover and seasonality that exist across complex urban and peri-urban environments. We compared the noise attenuation capacity of sites typifying dominant land covers in southern Ontario, Canada...
Long-term assessment of floodplain reconnection as a stream restoration approach for managing nitrogen in ground and surface waters
01. Juni 2022
Abstract Stream restoration is a popular approach for managing nitrogen (N) in degraded, flashy urban streams. Here, we investigated the long-term effects of stream restoration involving floodplain reconnection on riparian and in-stream N transport and transformation in an urban stream in the Chesapeake Bay watershed. We examined relationships between hydrology, chemistry, and biology using a Before/After-Control/Impact (BACI) study design to determine how hydrologic flashiness, nitrate (NO3−) concentrations (mg/L), and N flux, both NO3− and total N (kg/yr), changed...
Tree trade-offs in stream restoration: impacts on riparian groundwater quality
01. Juni 2022
Abstract Riparian zones are a vital interface between land and stream and are often the focus of stream restoration efforts to reduce nutrient pollution in waterways. Restoration of degraded stream channels often requires the removal of mature trees during major physical alteration of the riparian zone to reshape streambank topography. We assessed the impact of tree removal on riparian groundwater quality over space and time. Twenty-nine wells were installed across 5 sites in watersheds of the Washington D.C. and Baltimore, Maryland, USA metropolitan areas. Study sites...
Green in times of COVID-19: urban green space relevance during the COVID-19 pandemic in Buenos Aires City
01. Juni 2022
Abstract The COVID-19 pandemic has had a deep impact on the way we perceive our world. This study explores its effect on Urban Green Space (UGS) perception in Buenos Aires City (CABA), Argentina. We provide a detailed overview of the distribution of UGS in CABA, along with socio-economic analysis and visitors' profile and perception before and during the restrictive measures adopted by the national authorities to contain the COVID-19 outbreak (July to December of 2020). We conducted a series of surveys based on open and closed questions. Before the pandemic, surveys...
City biodiversity index and the cities-biodiversity relationship: a case study for Sorocaba, SP, Brazil
01. Juni 2022
Abstract In order to adopt a strategic model which aims to mitigate the environmental pressures exerted by the process of unbridled urbanization, the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), an international agreement that permeates its conservation, the sustainable use of its resources and the equitable sharing of its resources, approved in 2010 the creation of the City Biodiversity Index (CBI), a political-legal instrument that aims to assess its management and progress. Later in 2016, the “Sorocaba: the city of biodiversity” program was launched by Secretariat...
Living in a tropical concrete jungle: diversity and abundance variation in a parrot assemblage (Aves, Psittacidae) of a major Amazonian city
01. Juni 2022
Abstract The effects of urbanization on biodiversity had been studied mainly in northern hemisphere. Therefore, biodiversity analysis in tropical cities is urgently required for a full understanding of the how animal and plant communities react to urbanization. Parrots are iconic tropical birds and considered particularly vulnerable to urbanization impacts. Here we describe patterns of diversity and abundance of a parrot assemblage in Manaus, a major Amazonian city. We made standardized censuses of parrots in 12 Manaus neighborhoods, covering a wide range of...
Spread of the invasive Javan myna along an urban–suburban gradient in Peninsular Malaysia
01. Juni 2022
Abstract Invasive species can spread rapidly at local and national scales, resulting in significant environmental and economic impacts. Rapid urbanisation and deforestation can accelerate the spread of invasive species and depress populations of native species. We studied the pattern of spread of the Javan myna Acridotheres javanicus, an introduced species in Peninsular Malaysia that has benefited greatly from urbanisation over the past 40 years (1981–2020). We used the online database eBird–a citizen science project–to build a species distribution model using...
Molluscs community as a keystone group for assessing the impact of urban sprawl at intertidal ecosystems
01. Juni 2022
Abstract Mollusc communities are getting endangered in the aftermath of urban sprawl because artificial structures do not surrogate natural substrates. In this study, we compared the diversity, community and trophic arrangements of molluscs among different models of artificial substrate and their adjacent natural rock, to detect relationships between some abiotic variables and the mollusc communities. Complexity, chemical composition and age were tested as potential drivers of the community. Diversity, community and trophic structure differed between natural and...
Designing and managing biodiverse streetscapes: key lessons from the City of Melbourne
01. Juni 2022
Abstract Underutilised public spaces such as streetscapes offer substantial opportunities to integrate habitats that increase biodiversity into existing urban landscapes and create more ecologically connected cities. Cooperation and collaboration from diverse stakeholders are paramount to achieving this because growing conditions for plants in streetscapes are often much harsher than remnant habitats or urban parks and little is known about the horticultural performance of many native understorey species in these novel urban environments. This paper describes how the...
Cultivar blends: A strategy for creating more resilient warm season turfgrass lawns
01. Juni 2022
Abstract Turfgrass lawns are synonymous with plant selection in the built environment. Plants in urban landscapes are largely selected to enhance aesthetic quality and comply with social norms. Warm season turfgrasses are produced and planted as intraspecific cultivar monocultures to preserve heritable traits that meet aesthetic standards. Monocultures are less resilient to biotic and abiotic stress than more diverse plantings, which increases reliance on pesticides and resource-intensive maintenance and presents unintended environmental risks. Increasing interspecific...
Tree canopy macrostructure controls heating of asphalt pavement in a moist-temperate urban forest
01. Juni 2022
Abstract Tree canopies influence the urban microclimate by controlling solar radiation reaching the ground surface. Temperature gradients are easily measured between shaded and exposed asphalt pavement, but it is not clear how differences in canopy structure affect pavement heating or whether temperature variation is sufficient to affect the pavement’s structural integrity. In this study, we document pavement heating in response to solar exposure through a diurnal cycle. Pavement temperature was measured under and near thirteen street-side trees in a residential...
The spatial variation of air purification benefit provided by street tree assemblages in Shenyang, China
01. Juni 2022
Abstract Street tree assemblages are a widespread natural component in cities and provide a range of ecosystem services. The spatial distribution of street tree assemblages within cities, however, is not uniform. We assessed the air purification benefits provided by street trees in Shenyang, China, to examine how urban form, urban geography and drivers of vegetation management affect this ecosystem service. The i-Tree Street Model was utilized to evaluate air purification benefits provided by street trees. We analyzed the results using two indices, with values expressed...
Urban–rural gradients in soil nutrients beneath Chinese pine (Pinus tabulaeformis Carr.) are affected by land-use
01. Juni 2022
Abstract Urban–rural gradients of soil nutrients may be affected by many factors including land use, vegetation cover, and management. In this study, focusing on one vegetation type (Chinese pine, Pinus tabulaeformis Carr.) to exclude the effects of vegetation cover, we investigated soil nutrients in three land-use types (neighborhoods, parks and roadsides) along urban–rural gradients in Beijing, China, to explore the differences in soil nutrients across land-use types and the changes of soil nutrients along the urban–rural gradient. Soil nutrients (organic carbon...
Phase II MS4 challenges: moving toward effective stormwater management for small municipalities
01. Juni 2022
Abstract Federal regulations for municipal separate storm sewer systems (MS4s) in the United States have been in place since 1990 as part of the Nation Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES), aiming to reduce sediment and pollutant loads originating from urban areas. However, small-municipality (Phase II) MS4s frequently grapple with several challenges, resulting in a lack of stakeholder buy-in and actionable stormwater management plans. We identify five common challenges concerning MS4 requirements based on literature review, professional experience, and...
Coproduction of place and knowledge for ecology with the city
01. Juni 2022
Abstract Ecology with the city is a transdisciplinary pursuit, combining the work of researchers, policy makers, managers, and residents to advance equity and sustainability. This undertaking may be facilitated by understanding the parallels in two kinds of coproduction. First, is how urban systems themselves are places that are jointly constituted or coproduced by biophysical and social processes. Second, is how sustainable planning and policies also join human concerns with biophysical structures and processes. Seeking connections between coproduction of place and the...
Land sharing between cultivated and wild plants: urban gardens as hotspots for plant diversity in cities
01. Juni 2022
Abstract Plant communities in urban gardens consist of cultivated species, including ornamentals and food crops, and wild growing species. Yet it remains unclear what significance urban gardens have for the plant diversity in cities and how the diversity of cultivated and wild plants depends on the level of urbanization. We sampled plants growing within 18 community gardens in Berlin, Germany to investigate the species diversity of cultivated and wild plants. We tested species diversity in relation to local and landscape-scale imperviousness as a measure of urbanity, and...