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Urban Ecosystems 

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Avian species richness in cities: A review of the Spanish-language literature from the Southern Cone of South America
19. Oktober 2021
Abstract South America sustains an important part of the world’s terrestrial biodiversity and its population is highly urbanized. Global syntheses have revealed a paucity of urban ecological research in the region; however, local research might be overlooked due to language barriers. As a contribution to disseminating local knowledge, we conducted a synthesis of Spanish-language literature on bird species richness in the Southern Cone of South America - an area of high diversity, endemism, and more than half of the world’s terrestrial biome types. In this systematic...
A core on the Atlantic margin of Europe: an urban bird assemblage in Cork City, Ireland
19. Oktober 2021
Abstract Urbanization threatens bird populations globally, however many urban habitats present important refugia for wildlife in this rapidly changing landscape. Additionally, birds at the periphery of their global range are more prone to landscape changes and thus these distributions are good indicators of the effects of urbanization on diversity; e.g., bird populations and communities of Cork City, Ireland. The aim of this study was to evaluate effects from urbanization on bird densities (birds/ha), species richness, and species composition throughout Cork City. I...
Study on the ecosystem services of urban forests: implications for climate change mitigation in the case of Adama City of Oromiya Regional Sate, Ethiopia
16. Oktober 2021
Abstract This study was conducted to explore the ecosystem services of urban forests in Adama city, central Ethiopia. Attempts were made to quantify the carbon storage and sequestration, air pollution removal and hydrological benefits of urban trees. The urban forest structure and composition of the city was surveyed and analyzed. The i-Tree Eco Model was employed to analyze the ecosystem services based on the current urban forests structure of the city. The result revealed that the urban trees of the Adama city stored a total of 116,000 tons of carbon. The tree species...
The effect of artificial light on bat richness and nocturnal soundscapes along an urbanization gradient in an arid landscape of central Peru
13. Oktober 2021
Abstract Urbanization usually reduces bat richness; however, the presence of green areas within cities and peripheral rural areas in arid ecosystems may provide microhabitats for some species. Light pollution is a major feature of urbanization, but its impact on bat behavior appears to be species-specific and previous studies have documented contrasting responses. Moreover, the effect of urbanization on bat species has been poorly studied in arid regions. We assessed the effect of artificial night light intensity (as a proxy of urbanization) on both bat occupancy and the...
Response to commentary on “cues to care: future directions for ecological landscapes”
11. Oktober 2021
Abstract This commentary is in response to “Commentary on Cues to Care: future directions for ecological landscapes” (Nassauer 2020) that stated there were “errors and apparent misunderstanding” of Cues to Care (CTC) in a published perspectives article (Hostetler in Urban Ecosyst 24:11–19, 2021). This perspectives article reviewed CTC studies that explored landscaping designs and maintenance practices needed to meet aesthetic expectations for managed urban and rural landscapes. I write this commentary to state that there were no misunderstandings of CTC by...
Influence of habitat type and distance from source area on bird taxonomic and functional diversity in a Neotropical megacity
06. Oktober 2021
Abstract The Neotropical region has been subjected to massive urbanization, which poses high risks for some global biodiversity hotspots and losses of ecosystem functions and services. In this study, we investigate how distance from large patches of native forests (source areas) and vegetation (green)/and infrastructure (gray) characteristics affect bird species richness and functional diversity in São Paulo megacity, southeastern Brazil. We analyzed the effects of source areas and green/gray characteristics on species richness and functional diversity (richness...
Assessment of dispersal and population structure of Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) in a seaport setting
06. Oktober 2021
Abstract Seaports are introduction hotspots for invasive alien species (IAS). This is especially true for rodents, which have accompanied humans around the globe since the earliest days of ocean-going voyages. The rapid spread of IAS soon after arrival in a new environment is facilitated by further human-mediated transport or landscape features, like roads. By measuring genetic diversity and structure to investigate dispersal pathways, we gained insight into the transport, spread and establishment stages of a biological invasion, leveraging the most common rodent species...
Correction to: Anthropogenic factors influence the occupancy of an invasive carnivore in a suburban preserve system
01. Oktober 2021
A Correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11252-021-01099-2
Aspects of the ecology and behaviour of a potential urban exploiter, the southern tree agama, Acanthocercus atricollis
01. Oktober 2021
Abstract Urbanisation has caused significant alterations to ecosystems, generally resulting in decreased biodiversity. However, certain animal species persist and thrive in urban environments by making use of available opportunities, anthropogenic resources, infrastructure and increased ambient and surface temperatures. These species are known as urban exploiters. We investigated the southern tree agama, Acanthocercus atricollis population trends, habitat use and basking and shading behaviour in a high-density urban human-populated housing metropolitan area in...
The resilient frugivorous fauna of an urban forest fragment and its potential role in vegetation enrichment
01. Oktober 2021
Abstract Anthropocentric defaunation affects critical ecological processes, such as seed dispersal, putting ecosystems and biomes at risk, and leading to habitat impoverishment. Diverse restoration techniques could reverse the process of habitat impoverishment. However, in most of the restoration efforts, only vegetation cover is targeted. Fauna and flora are treated as isolated components, neglecting a key component of ecosystems’ functioning, the ecological interactions. We tested whether the resilient frugivorous generalist fauna can improve habitat quality by...
Records of rat control campaigns in a food market with the largest seafood trading volume worldwide
01. Oktober 2021
Abstract Brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) and roof rats (Rattus rattus) are among the most common mammals worldwide. Little is known about the effects of season on rat population size, which is important for understanding rat ecology and/or performing effective rat control campaigns. Tsukiji Market was a metropolitan central wholesale market in Tokyo and was located within 1 km from one of the biggest downtown areas. To control rats in the market, a pest management professional exclusively conducted annual campaigns at two fixed time points for many years. In addition...
Patterns in macroinvertebrate taxonomic richness and community assembly among urban wetlands in Cape Town, South Africa: implications for wetland management
01. Oktober 2021
Abstract Urbanization has significantly increased globally during the last century and has far-reaching consequences for biodiversity and their associated habitats, particularly wetland ecosystems. Previous studies have focused primarily on wetlands in non-urban areas, and urban wetland biodiversity patterns are currently not well understood, particularly across Africa. Here, we investigate two highly transformed urban wetlands in Cape Town, South Africa, and determine the relative importance and influence of local environmental variables as drivers of macroinvertebrate...
Urban ecosystems and ecosystem services in megacity Dhaka: mapping and inventory analysis
01. Oktober 2021
Abstract Urban ecosystems and ecosystem services have received little research attention in South Asian countries where rapid urban development is currently problematic. We developed a typology of urban ecosystems and an inventory of current ecosystem services for Dhaka – the capital of Bangladesh. Our observations, surveys, analyses, and evaluation revealed a diversity of urban ecosystems including khal (canal), pond, wetland, cultivated land, park/rooftop garden, playground/field, open space/vacant plot, roadside trees, and graveyards. Important provisioning...
Bright lights, big city: an experimental assessment of short-term behavioral and performance effects of artificial light at night on Anolis lizards
01. Oktober 2021
Abstract With urbanization expanding into natural areas, it is increasingly important to understand how species subject to human-induced habitat alteration respond to novel opportunities and stressors. A pervasive consequence of urbanization is artificial light at night (ALAN), which previous studies have found introduces both costs and benefits for vertebrates. This understanding, however, primarily reflects findings from laboratory-controlled experiments or comparisons of wild populations in areas with long-standing differences in ALAN regimes. Here, we investigated...
How do heat and flood risk drive residential green infrastructure implementation in Phoenix, Arizona?
01. Oktober 2021
Abstract Green infrastructure is an increasingly popular strategy to simultaneously address challenges associated with urbanization and global environmental change, including increased flooding and rising temperatures. While many cities aim to expand green infrastructure to deliver  ecosystem services, their impacts will be limited without significant uptake on private property. Most studies and programs to date focus on public land, so little is known about what would motivate private residents to implement green infrastructure. This study addresses this gap...
Characterizing the landscape compositions of urban wildlife encounters: the case of the stone marten (Martes foina), the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and the hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus) in the Greater...
01. Oktober 2021
Abstract As urbanization continues to expand worldwide, more and more urban areas become home to wild animals able to adapt to city life, generating a growing need for information. In the Greater Paris area, the existence of three wild mammals (the stone marten, Martes foina, the red fox, Vulpes vulpes and the hedgehog, Erinaceus europaeus) is attested. However, little is known regarding their presence. The research reported in this study aims to shed light upon their co-existence with city dwellers. Specifically, the areas where contacts between these species and the...
Greenspace sites conserve taxonomic and functional diversity of dung beetles in an urbanized landscape in the Brazilian Cerrado
01. Oktober 2021
Abstract Urbanization transforms natural ecosystems, creating an environmental mosaic, characterized by native vegetation sites mixed with constructed sites. In this study, we compared dung beetle taxonomic and functional diversity between residential and greenspace sites (remnants of native vegetation) in an urban landscape in the Brazilian Cerrado. We sampled dung beetles in February (2013–2014 – 2015) in four sites of remnants of native Cerado (here called “greenspace”) and four residential sites in the city of Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil...
Behavioral responses of rural and urban greater white-toothed shrews (Crocidura russula) to sound disturbance
01. Oktober 2021
Abstract The development of urban areas imposes challenges that wildlife must adapt to in order to persist in these new habitats. One of the greatest changes brought by urbanization has been an increase in anthropogenic noise, with negative consequences for the natural behavior of animals. Small mammals are particularly vulnerable to urbanization and noise, despite some species having successfully occupied urban environments. To understand some of the traits that have enabled small mammals to deal with the consequences of urbanization, we compared the behavioral...
Classes of protection in urban forest fragments are effectiveless in structuring butterfly assemblages: landscape and forest structure are far better predictors
01. Oktober 2021
Abstract Urbanization is a major cause of biodiversity loss and disconnection between people and nature. For this reason, the creation and maintenance of green areas as part of the urban landscape is a common practice in cities around the world. These green areas are generally a result of particular public policies regarding how these areas can be accessed, maintained, and how they are connected to other natural fragments in the city. In an effort to investigate aspects of the ecology of such green areas of the city of Curitiba, southern Brazil, the present study...
An avian urban morphotype: how the city environment shapes great tit morphology at different life stages
01. Oktober 2021
Abstract Urbanization is a worldwide phenomenon associated with tremendous modifications of natural habitats. Understanding how city dwelling species are affected by those changes is becoming a pressing issue. We presently lack fine scale spatio-temporal studies investigating the impact of urbanization across different life stages and along urbanization gradients. Based on 8 years of monitoring of urban and forest great tits (Parus major), we investigated how city life shapes morphological characteristics at different life stages in the city versus the forest, and...