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Ecology and Society 

A journal of integrative science for resilience and sustainability
Ecology and Society Current Table of Contents
The twenty most current aticles published.
Wetlands need people: a framework for understanding and promoting Australian indigenous wetland management
21. September 2018 Pyke, M. L., Toussaint, S., Close, P. G., Dobbs, R. J., Davey, I., George, K. J., Oades, D., Sibosado, D., McCarthy, P., Tigan, C., Angus (Jnr), B., Riley, E., Cox, D., Cox, Z., Smith, B., Cox, P., Wiggan, A., Clifton, J. Research
Indigenous knowledge systems (IKSs) can, and do, contribute to natural resource management (NRM) in Australia and elsewhere. However, cross-cultural NRM and scientific research usually emphasizes particular components of IKSs, rather than engaging with the value of an integrated complex IKS. Focusing on two case studies of Aboriginal groups in the Kimberley region of northwestern Australia, we present a conceptual framework that represents how IKSs can manifest as a system of wetland management. The framework depicts how beliefs, knowledge, and practices are inter-related, forming a...
Exploring youth activism on climate change: dutiful, disruptive, and dangerous dissent
21. September 2018 O'Brien, K., Selboe, E., Hayward, B. M. Insight
The policies and decisions made today will influence climate and sustainability outcomes for the remainder of this century and beyond, and youth today have a large stake in this future. Many youth are expressing dissent toward economic, social, and environmental policies and practices that contribute to climate change in diverse ways, but clearly not all forms of climate activism have the same impact or repercussions. We have presented a typology for understanding youth dissent as expressed through climate activism. Recognizing the complex empirical reality of youth concerns about climate...
A critical realist inquiry in conducting interdisciplinary research: an analysis of LUCID examples
17. September 2018 Nastar, M., Boda, C. S., Olsson, L. Research
In recent years, a strong natural science hegemony has predominantly framed our understanding of sustainability challenges and, as a result, the production of solution strategies. In countering this, some academic centers have sought to promote interdisciplinary research, starting from the recognition that the scale and complexity of sustainability challenges necessitates a plurality of different social science perspectives to be incorporated in research. In this article, we analyze the process and outcomes of one of these centers, namely, the Lund University Centre of Excellence for...
The interdisciplinary decision problem: Popperian optimism and Kuhnian pessimism in forestry
13. September 2018 Persson, J., Thor?n, H., Olsson, L. Research
Interdisciplinary research in the fields of forestry and sustainability studies often encounters seemingly incompatible ontological assumptions deriving from natural and social sciences. The perceived incompatibilities might emerge from the epistemological and ontological claims of the theories or models directly employed in the interdisciplinary collaboration, or they might be created by other epistemological and ontological assumptions that these interdisciplinary researchers find no reason to question. In this paper we discuss the benefits and risks of two possible approaches, Popperian...
African community-based conservation: a systematic review of social and ecological outcomes
11. September 2018 Galvin, K. A., Beeton, T. A., Luizza, M. W. Synthesis
Community-based conservation (CBC) institutions are widely regarded as transformative bodies that benefit social and ecological processes in coupled social-ecological systems. Yet, limited empirical evidence for this claim exists, especially on the African continent where community-based conservancies (CBCs) are being rapidly adopted in diverse institutional forms across multiple countries. We provide the first large-scale systematic review of CBC outcomes in sub-Saharan Africa. We review the literature on CBCs and develop a conceptual model that illustrates the nested scales of interaction...
Achieving the promise of integration in social-ecological research: a review and prospectus
11. September 2018 Guerrero, A. M., Bennett, N. J., Wilson, K. A., Carter, N., Gill, D., Mills, M., Ives, C. D., Selinske, M. J., Larrosa, C., Bekessy, S., Januchowski-Hartley, F. A., Travers, H., Wyborn, C. A., Nuno, A. Insight
An integrated understanding of both social and ecological aspects of environmental issues is essential to address pressing sustainability challenges. An integrated social-ecological systems perspective is purported to provide a better understanding of the complex relationships between humans and nature. Despite a threefold increase in the amount of social-ecological research published between 2010 and 2015, it is unclear whether these approaches have been truly integrative. We conducted a systematic literature review to investigate the conceptual, methodological, disciplinary, and...
Alternative environmentalities: recasting the assessment of Canada’s first Marine Stewardship Council-certified fishery in social terms
07. September 2018 Foley, P., Okyere, D. A., Mather, C. Research
We use a Foucault-inspired environmentalities analytical lens to conceptualize alternative sustainability auditing frameworks. The Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) claims to administer the international gold standard for sustainability evaluation of fisheries, yet the livelihoods of many people who depend on Canada’s first MSC-certified fishery are in serious jeopardy. After decades of growth that helped fishers and coastal communities alleviate the social consequences of the infamous cod collapse, the northern shrimp fishery in eastern Canada is experiencing ecological change and...
Commoning in dynamic environments: community-based management of turtle nesting sites on the lower Amazon floodplain
06. September 2018 Pezzuti, J., De Castro, F., McGrath, D. G., Miorando, P. Saikoski, Barboza, R. S? Leit?o, Carneiro Romagnoli, F. Research
Community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) involves a system of local practices designed to regulate access to, and use of, natural resources through rules and norms shared by a set of users. These institutions are usually defined through rational motivations that drive collective action and well-delimited social and spatial boundaries. We discuss the shortcomings of these premises in dynamic ecological systems where the location of resource concentrations is ephemeral. We explore four cases of community-based management of river turtle nesting sites on the lower Amazon floodplain...
Values-led management: the guidance of place-based values in environmental relationships of the past, present, and future
24. August 2018 Artelle, K. A., Stephenson, J., Bragg, C., Housty, J. A., Housty, W. G., Kawharu, M., Turner, N. J. Synthesis
The prevalence of widespread, human-caused ecological degradation suggests that fundamental change is needed in how societies interact with the environment. In this paper we argue that durable models of environmental relationships already exist in approaches of place-based peoples, whose values connect people to their environments, provide guidance on appropriate behaviors, and structure sustained people-place relationships. To illustrate, we identify and discuss concordant values of indigenous peoples at opposite ends of the Pacific Ocean: the Māori of Aotearoa (New Zealand), and...
Community forest governance in Cameroon: a review
22. August 2018 Piabuo, S. Mandiefe, Foundjem-Tita, D., Minang, P. A. Research
There is growing evidence that good community forest (CF) governance is a significant determinant of CF success. We examined the state of CF governance in Cameroon by applying a set of good governance principles to 36 case studies. Key good governance principles applied included accountability, equity, participation, representation, direction, and performance. The results revealed that the state of CF governance was relatively poor, with 78% of case studies not meeting standards for all the principles. Evidence suggests that all case studies did not meet standards for accountability and...
South-to-south exchanges in understanding and addressing natural resource conflicts
20. August 2018 Berry, K. A., Kalluri, B., La Vina, A. Research
Conflicts over natural resources affect millions of people in developing countries. Because they vary in terms of context, intensity, interactions between parties, and local and international implications, natural resource conflicts have different potential for transformation. Exchanges that involve communication, learning, and network development between individuals or groups in different countries within the Global South, what we call south-to-south exchanges, may have the potential to enhance capacities in addressing natural resource conflicts. Yet these types of interactions between...
Power and politics in stakeholder engagement: farm dweller (in)visibility and conversions to game farming in South Africa
20. August 2018 Brandt, F., Josefsson, J., Spierenburg, M. Research
Here, we discuss tensions inherent in multistakeholder approaches addressing conflicts over natural resources as well as the involvement of stakeholders in research. Our discussion is built on knowledge generated by extensive research on the impacts of private farm conversions to game farms in South Africa, where significant increases in farm conversions have been observed since the 1990s. The studies had a particular focus on the consequences for farm dwellers, one of the most marginalized groups in the South African countryside. The research findings challenge the dominant narrative that...
Transforming conflicts from the bottom-up? Reflections on civil society efforts to empower marginalized fishers in postwar Sri Lanka
20. August 2018 Scholtens, J., Bavinck, M. Research
We analyze the efforts of an international consortium of academics and activists to understand and address a transnational fisheries conflict in South Asia. The so-called REINCORPFISH project (2010–2016) focused on an asymmetrical conflict between trawler fishers from the Indian state of Tamil Nadu who frequently transgress into Sri Lankan waters and northern Sri Lankan fishers, whose livelihoods are affected by these intrusions as well as by a long history of civil war. Guided by notions of bottom-up governance and empowerment, the consortium engaged in action research focusing on...
Structures, actors, and interactions in the analysis of natural resource conflicts
20. August 2018 Salman, T., De Theije, M., V?lez-Torres, I. Research
We propose a research approach to natural resource conflicts that includes different tempos of the developments that lead to a conflict becoming manifest. This approach can help to distinguish dimensions of the conflict and to understand the logic behind and reasons for different vocabularies currently in vogue to address these dimensions. It thus clarifies the different assertions and potentials of existing theoretical and conceptual approaches. After presenting our model, we analyze three conflict cases, in Sri Lanka/India, Suriname, and Colombia. The cases show the history and...
Learning and linking for invasive species management
17. August 2018 Nourani, S. W., Krasny, M. E., Decker, D. J. Research
Invasive species can create economic and safety concerns. Responding to invasive species requires communication of research, localized management, and collaboration across jurisdictional boundaries. We examined the use of adaptive comanagement in three New York counties to mitigate the impacts of emerald ash borer, a wood-boring beetle that causes widespread death of ash trees. We assessed learning along three typologies (cognitive, normative, and relational), linking (through network analysis), and connections of learning and linking to management outcomes. Findings indicate that...
Fishing strategy diversification and fishers' ecological dependency
16. August 2018 Yletyinen, J., Hentati-Sundberg, J., Blenckner, T., Bodin, ?. Research
Sustainable fisheries management plays a critical role in supporting healthy marine ecosystems and the livelihoods of millions of people. An emerging view on fisheries management emphasizes the need to manage fisheries as complex social-ecological systems. Yet, our understanding of the outcomes of fisheries management from a social-ecological perspective is limited in comparison to that provided by either the biophysical or the social perspective alone. In the Baltic Sea, management interventions focused on ecosystem recovery contributed to unintended changes from 1996 to 2009 in the...
Adaptation pathways to cope with salinization in south-west coastal region of Bangladesh
16. August 2018 Hossain, P., Ludwig, F., Leemans, R. Research
Salinization in coastal regions of Bangladesh challenges sustainable development of different sectors like agriculture, forestry, fisheries, livestock, and health. Particularly its southwest region largely faces increased salinity risks because of its geographical location and environmental settings. This study analyzes the causes of salinity increase, their cascading impacts on different coastal systems, and their livelihood implications, and assesses potential coping measures through innovative adaptation pathways for the most affected coastal systems. These pathways integrate bottom-up...
Social fields and natural systems: integrating knowledge about society and nature
16. August 2018 Olsson, L., Jerneck, A. Research
Sustainability science is a wide and integrative scientific field. It embraces both complementary and contradictory approaches and perspectives for dealing with newer sustainability challenges in the context of old and persistent social problems. In this article we suggest a combined approach called social fields and natural systems. It builds on field theory and systems thinking and can assist sustainability scientists and others in integrating the best available knowledge from the natural sciences with that from the social sciences. The approach is preferable, we argue, to the various...
Incorporating multilevel values into the social-ecological systems framework
16. August 2018 Van Riper, C. J., Thiel, A., Penker, M., Braito, M., Landon, A. C., Thomsen, J. M., Tucker, C. M. Research
The social-ecological systems framework has guided investigations of complex interactions among ecosystems, society, and economies. In recent years, academics and practitioners have taken steps to strengthen this framework by calling for more systematic engagement with the cognitive and affective bases of human behavior. We suggest research that engages with multilevel values (i.e., individual, cultural, assigned) will be better positioned to understand how and why people cooperate in natural resource comanagement situations, and in turn, develop more effective strategies for mitigating...
The emergence of social licence necessitates reforms in environmental regulation
15. August 2018 Van Putten, I. E., Cvitanovic, C., Fulton, E., Lacey, J., Kelly, R. Insight
The term “social licence to operate” (SLO), popularized in corporate usage over the last 20 years, is frequently used to refer to the level of social approval that exists in relation to the development of natural resources for private or public purposes. However, the theoretical and practical utility of the concept remains contested and it is often used opportunistically to advance individual agendas. Moreover, it remains difficult to assess how an adequate level of SLO can be transparently assessed, or how dialogue can be appropriately achieved. In this paper we argue that the...