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Ecology and Society 

A journal of integrative science for resilience and sustainability
Ecology and Society Current Table of Contents
The twenty most current aticles published.
Transforming asymmetrical conflicts over natural resources in the Global South
09. November 2018 Fisher, E., Bavinck, M., Amsalu, A. Guest Editorial
This Special Feature re-examines the relationship between natural resources and processes of conflict and cooperation as they occur in the Global South. Here we introduce key issues and reflect on learning from recent research. While covering a range of resources, contributions share an emphasis on middle-range theory in terms of moving from empirical phenomenon to analytical understanding. What emerges are nuanced understandings of conflict and cooperation, as embedded within specific contexts and wider processes of power and accumulation. In considering how social-ecological resilience...
Rethinking capitalist transformation of fisheries in South Africa and India
09. November 2018 Menon, A., Sowman, M., Bavinck, M. Research
The industrialization of fisheries and the growth of a capitalist sector within fisheries have received considerable scholarly attention. For the most part, scholars have emphasized how capitalism has led to privatization of the commons, forced small-scale resource users into wage labor, and marginalized the sector. This analysis does not, however, explain the continued presence of such a vibrant and important small-scale sector in fisheries throughout the world. Drawing on the notion of Foucauldian governmentality, other scholars have argued that the small-scale sector or what they term...
Failed promises: governance regimes and conflict transformation related to Jatropha cultivation in Ethiopia
08. November 2018 Tufa, F. A., Amsalu, A., Zoomers, E. Research
Conflict over natural resources is a widespread phenomenon in the global south. Trends in consumption, demographics, environmental degradation, and socio-political dynamics are exerting significant pressure on the availability and accessibility of natural resources. In many countries, the governance of land for commercial agricultural investment leads to conflict. Such conflicts are complex, and the drivers extend beyond resource scarcity to issues of access and competition. This paper is based on the results of field research on investments in large-scale Jatropha plantations for biofuel...
Integrating sense of place into ecosystem restoration: a novel approach to achieve synergistic social-ecological impact
08. November 2018 Kibler, K. M., Cook, G. S., Chambers, L. G., Donnelly, M., Hawthorne, T. L., Rivera, F. I., Walters, L. Insight
It is often a challenge to predict the impact of ecosystem restoration because many critical relationships and feedbacks between natural and human systems are poorly understood. To address this knowledge gap, we introduce a novel framework to characterize restoration dynamics within coupled human-natural systems. Because dynamics surrounding restoration are complex, we investigate the potential for sense of place, i.e., emotional attachment to place, to elucidate relationships between human and natural systems during times of change, such as restoration. Integrating sense of place with...
Governance for adaptive capacity and resilience in the U.S. water sector
08. November 2018 Baehler, K. J., Biddle, J. C. Research
Water utility managers play potentially important roles in current and future transitions toward more adaptive and sustainable approaches to water management. We report the results of qualitative interviews and focus groups designed to explore the perspectives of 22 water utility managers in the United States regarding pressures, challenges, and opportunities facing their organizations and communities. Overall, the study participants characterized their jobs as requiring a delicate balance between innovation and reliability, with no room for error in delivering abundant, clean water, but...
Linking marine conservation and Indigenous cultural revitalization: First Nations free themselves from externally imposed social-ecological traps
07. November 2018 Eckert, L. E., Ban, N. C., Tallio, S., Turner, N. Insight
Continuity of coastal Indigenous cultures relies on healthy ecosystems and opportunity to fulfill cultural practices. Owing to resource stewardship practice over millennia, Indigenous nations possess Indigenous knowledge that positions them as leaders in contemporary resource management. However, Indigenous peoples possibly face social-ecological traps, situations in which feedbacks between social and ecological systems result in an undesirable state, that are challenging to overcome. Centuries of compounding colonization and environmental degradation have negatively impacted Indigenous...
Nontimber forest products as ecological and biocultural keystone species
07. November 2018 Shackleton, C. M., Ticktin, T., Cunningham, A. B. Synthesis
Nontimber forests products (NTFPs) are the mainstay of rural livelihoods and local economies the world over. As such they are of interest to a wide disciplinary range of researchers and development and government agencies seeking to promote livelihoods, incomes, and ecologically sustainable practices. With the attention on the various human uses of NTFPs, their role and networks in the broader biological communities in which they are located are frequently overlooked. Harvesting of many NTFPs has effects not only at the organism and population scales, but also on co-occurring species, some...
Community forestry frameworks in sub-Saharan Africa and the impact on sustainable development
31. Oktober 2018 Duguma, L. A., Atela, J., Ayana, A. N., Alemagi, D., Mpanda, M., Nyago, M., Minang, P. A., Nzyoka, J. M., Foundjem-Tita, D., Ngo Ntamag-Ndjebet, C. Research
Community based forest management (CBFM) has been implemented in Africa since the 1980s. Three main objectives, which are currently part of the sustainable development goals (SDGs), underlie the formation of CBFM. They are (1) enhancing community engagement in forest management, (2) reducing rural poverty, and (3) promoting forest resources conservation. We examine CBFM frameworks in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and CBFM schemes’ contribution to selected sustainable development goals relevant to the forestry sector. Five SSA countries, Ethiopia, Kenya, Cameroon, Uganda, and Tanzania were...
Finding an academic space: reflexivity among sustainability researchers
31. Oktober 2018 Knagg?rd, ?., Ness, B., Harnesk, D. Research
Reflexivity is arguably an important aspect of doing sustainability research. The inter- and transdisciplinary character of sustainability research, as well as its change-oriented agenda, require scholars to reflect on their role as researchers, their research focus and methodology, and its relation to academia and society. Using focus groups with 15 researchers at different stages in their academic career, we investigate three forms of reflexivity, i.e., personal, functional, and disciplinary, for sustainability researchers connected to the LUCID (Lund University Centre of Excellence for...
Analysis of social-ecological dynamics driving conflict in linked surface-groundwater systems
31. Oktober 2018 McGuire, S., Ehlinger, T. J. Research
Conflict over water resources emerges from complex interactions among biophysical, social, and economic processes operating at multiple scales. Competing use of linked surface-groundwater (LSGW) resources is an excellent yet relatively unexplored example of such conflict. Dynamic circumstances surrounding the contested installation of a high capacity municipal well in southeastern Wisconsin were examined through the theoretical lens of adaptive governance using document analysis and open-ended key stakeholder interviews. A framework analysis method extracted 16 controlling variables from...
Framework for a collaborative process to increase preparation for drought on U.S. public rangelands
30. Oktober 2018 Brugger, J., Hawkes, K. L., Bowen, A. M., McClaran, M. P. Insight
We describe a theoretically based framework (C-PMT+HAPA) for designing and evaluating collaborative processes to increase preparation for natural hazards in situations in which preparedness decisions are shared and actions must be taken jointly by more than one party. The framework combines two health behavior change theories from psychology, protection motivation theory (PMT) and the health action process approach (HAPA), with collaboration theory in natural resources management. The framework provides much needed guidance for designing the activities in which participants will...
Community based aquaculture in the western Indian Ocean: challenges and opportunities for developing sustainable coastal livelihoods
30. Oktober 2018 Ateweberhan, M., Hudson, J., Rougier, A., Jiddawi, N. S., Msuya, F. E., Stead, S. M., Harris, A. Research
The small-fisheries social-ecological system in the western Indian Ocean (WIO) represents a typical social-ecological trap setting where very poor natural resources dependent coastal communities face local and global threats and engage in unsustainable practices of exploiting limited resources. Community-based aquaculture (CBA) has been implemented as an important alternative or supplementary income generating activity for minimizing the overdependence on marine natural resources and promoting biodiversity conservation. Despite its proliferation throughout the WIO region in recent decades...
Inspired by structured decision making: a collaborative approach to the governance of multiple forest values
30. Oktober 2018 Johansson, J., Sandstr?m, C., Lundmark, T. Research
Since the 2000s, consensus-oriented decision making has become increasingly common in the management of natural resources because of the recognition that collaborative processes may enhance the legitimacy of decision making and facilitate effective implementation. Previous research has identified a number of problems with the design and practical facilitation of collaborative processes. Structured decision making (SDM) has been developed as an alternative suitable for decision making characterized by complexity, stakeholder controversy, and scientific uncertainty. Our aim was to...
Controversies in social-ecological systems: lessons from a major red tide crisis on Chiloe Island, Chile
25. Oktober 2018 Mascare?o, A., Cordero, R., Az?car, G., Billi, M., Henr?quez, P., Ruz, G. A. Research
Connecting the discussions on resilience and governance of social-ecological systems (SESs) with the sociological analysis of social controversies, we explore a major red tide crisis on Chiloe Island, southern Chile, in 2016. Theoretically, we argue that controversies not only are methodological devices for the observation of the complex relations between nature and society in moments of crisis, but also are materially embedded in the SES dynamics and can work for or against systemic resilience. Empirically, we show that Chiloe’s SES is an unstable regime prone to sudden shifts and...
Toward an alternative dialogue between the social and natural sciences
24. Oktober 2018 Persson, J., Hornborg, A., Olsson, L., Thor?n, H. Research
Interdisciplinary research within the field of sustainability studies often faces incompatible ontological assumptions deriving from natural and social sciences. The importance of this fact is often underrated and sometimes leads to the wrong strategies. We distinguish between two broad approaches in interdisciplinarity: unificationism and pluralism. Unificationism seeks unification and perceives disciplinary boundaries as conventional, representing no long-term obstacle to progress, whereas pluralism emphasizes more ephemeral and transient interdisciplinary connections and underscores the...
Learning-based intervention for river restoration: analyzing the lack of outcomes in the Ljusnan River basin, Sweden
24. Oktober 2018 Rudberg, P. M., Smits, M. Research
We focus on a large and sustained stakeholder process for river restoration related to hydropower production that failed to reach any significant natural resource management outcomes. We explore to what extent the stakeholder process can be characterized as a learning-based intervention as well as the reasons for the lack of outcomes. The analysis draws on insights from existing literature of procedural and institutional factors identified to foster and hinder social learning in stakeholder processes. The analysis finds that the stakeholder process featured virtually all fostering...
Community empowerment for managing wild boar: a longitudinal case study of northern Italy 2001–2018
23. Oktober 2018 Giacomelli, S., Gibbert, M., Vigan?, R. Research
We studied the issue of wild boar (Sus scrofa) management over 17 years (2001–2018) in Piedmont, one of Italy’s northern regions. The community empowerment (CE) approach discussed here involved two main interventions. First, a regulation that was issued to forbid the hunting of overabundant species counterintuitively eliminated the interest of hunters in artificially increasing wild boar population growth via illegal releases. Second, increasing amounts of responsibility for controlling the wild boar population were delegated from government institutions to the local community...
Unraveling heterogeneity in the importance of ecosystem services: individual views of smallholders
23. Oktober 2018 Tauro, A., G?mez-Baggethun, E., Garc?a-Frapolli, E., Lazos Chavero, E., Balvanera, P. Research
Stakeholder groups are not homogeneous across individuals and through time, especially in relation to the importance of ecosystem services. However, the approaches commonly used to characterize the average importance and values of stakeholder groups overlook the heterogeneity in the individual priorities. This heterogeneity is particularly relevant for smallholders, who play a key role in ecosystem management but are more vulnerable to globalization than owners of large plots. We analyzed the priorities differentially assigned to ecosystem services and the reasons associated with the...
Green without envy: how social capital alleviates tensions from a Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) program in Indonesia
23. Oktober 2018 McGrath, F. L., Erbaugh, J. T., Leimona, B., Amaruzaman, S., Rahadian, N. P., Carrasco, L. Research
Social capital increases participation and the success of conservation projects. However, research often overlooks social capital between program participants and nonparticipants. We examine social capital between participants and nonparticipants in villages across the Cidanau Watershed in West Java, Indonesia. Villages in this region have longstanding participation in a Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) scheme, and previous studies note they contain high levels of social capital. We find that working together, helping each other when someone is in need, and trusting your neighbors are...
On the other side of the ditch: exploring contrasting ecosystem service coproduction between smallholder and commercial agriculture
23. Oktober 2018 Henriksson Malinga, R., Jewitt, G. P. W., Lindborg, R., Andersson, E., Gordon, L. J. Research
Managing for increased multifunctionality of agricultural landscapes is a crucial step toward a sustainable global agriculture. We studied two contrasting agricultural landscapes that exist in parallel on two sides of a ditch in the South African Drakensberg Mountains. The large-scale commercial and smallholder farmers operate within a similar biophysical context but have different farming intensities, management practices, socioeconomic positions, ethnic identities, cultural contexts, and land tenure systems. To assess multifunctionality, we examined the ecosystem services coproduced...