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Ecology and Society 

A journal of integrative science for resilience and sustainability
Ecology and Society Current Table of Contents
The twenty most current aticles published.
Global synthesis reveals that ecosystem degradation poses the primary threat to the world's medicinal animals
Short, M. L., Darimont, C. T. Research
Although overexploitation threatens some high-profile medicinal animals, little is known about global patterns in the use of—and threats to—medicinal animals. We examined data from the International Union for Conservation of Nature's Red List and a literature survey to identify a diverse catalog of medicinal animals (n = 1660). Most known species (~77%) are chordates in terrestrial habitats (~72%). Intensity of use generally maps to biodiverse regions with low human development. Most (~63%) species are decreasing, and primary threats relate to habitat loss...
Management of high nature value farmland in the Republic of Ireland: 25 years evolving toward locally adapted results-orientated solutions and payments
Moran, J., Byrne, D., Carlier, J., Dunford, B., Finn, J. A., ? hUallach?in, D., Sullivan, C. A. Synthesis
The effective conservation of high nature value farmland (HNV) will be crucial for the conservation of European and Irish biodiversity, and to meet the growing demand for a wide range of private and public goods and services from farmland. Here, we describe the evolution of policy and management of HNV farmland in the Republic of Ireland over the last 25 years and describe the emerging locally adapted, results-based payment approach that is valorizing a broad range of ecosystem services from these areas, which helps to underpin the future social, ecological, and financial viability of HNV...
Payments for ecosystem services within the hybrid governance model: evaluating policy alignment and complementarity on California rangelands
26. Februar 2021 Buckley Biggs, N., Hafner, J., Mashiri, F. E., Huntsinger, L., Lambin, E. F. Research
Governance of global natural resources is increasingly hybrid, with complementary public and private sector initiatives layered on landscapes to improve environmental outcomes. The challenge of polycentric land use governance is alignment of goals across diverse governance mechanisms when agricultural producers, public agencies, and corporations have distinct motivations. This case study of soil carbon governance on California rangelands explores a new payment for ecosystem services (PES) initiative led by the food and agriculture industry, called the Ecosystem Services Market Consortium...
Understanding the drivers of subsistence poaching in the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Conservation Area: What matters for community wildlife conservation?
18. Februar 2021 Ntuli, H., Sundstr?m, A., Sj?stedt, M., Muchapondwa, E., Jagers, S. C., Linell, A. Research
Although subsistence poaching is a large threat to wildlife conservation in Southern Africa, this behavior is seldom researched. Our understanding of individual and community level factors that drive such behavior is limited because of both lack of data and the literature’s predominant focus on commercial poaching. The main objective of this study is to contribute to this scanty literature by examining the factors that are correlated to subsistence poaching in the Great Limpopo, a transfrontier reserve spanning across Mozambique, South Africa, and Zimbabwe. We use collected primary...
Lessons learned from synthetic research projects based on the Ostrom Workshop frameworks
18. Februar 2021 Cox, M., Gurney, G. G., Anderies, J. M., Coleman, E., Darling, E., Epstein, G., Frey, U. J., Nenadovic, M., Schlager, E., Villamayor-Tomas, S. Insight
A generalized knowledge of social-ecological relationships is needed to address current environmental challenges. Broadly comparative and synthetic research is a key method for establishing this type of knowledge. To date, however, most work on social-ecological systems has applied idiosyncratic methods to specific systems. Several projects, each based on the frameworks developed by Elinor Ostrom and colleagues, stand out for their application of consistent methods across a broad range of cases. In this paper we compare seven of these projects and draw conclusions regarding their potential...
Indigenous peoples and salmon stewardship: a critical relationship
18. Februar 2021 Carothers, C., Black, J., Langdon, S. J., Donkersloot, R., Ringer, D., Coleman, J., Gavenus, E. R., Justin, W., Williams, M., Christiansen, F., Samuelson, J., Stevens, C., Woods, B., Clark, S., Clay, P. M., Mack, L., Raymond-Yakoubian, J., Sanders, A. Akall'eq, Stevens, B. L., Whiting, A. Research
Indigenous Peoples and salmon in the lands now called Alaska have been closely entwined for at least 12,000 years. Salmon continue to be central to the ways of life of Alaska Natives, contributing to physical, social, economic, cultural, spiritual, psychological, and emotional well-being. Salmon have also become important to Alaskan settlers. Our research and advisory team conducted a synthesis of what is known about these diverse human–salmon relationships, drawing on 865 published scientific studies; Indigenous knowledge; state, federal, and tribal data; archival materials; oral...
Grasping darkness: the dark ecological network as a social-ecological framework to limit the impacts of light pollution on biodiversity
17. Februar 2021 Chall?at, S., Barr?, K., Laforge, A., Lapostolle, D., Franchomme, M., Sirami, C., Le Viol, I., Milian, J., Kerbiriou, C. Synthesis
Artificial light at night (ALAN) is nowadays recognized as a major anthropogenic pressure on the environment on a global scale and as such is called light pollution. Through its attractive or deterrent effects, and its disruption of the biological clock for many animal and plant taxa, ALAN is increasingly recognized as a major threat to global biodiversity, which ultimately alters the amount, the quality, and the connectivity of available habitats for taxa. Biodiversity conservation tools should, therefore, include ALAN spatial and temporal effects. The ecological network, i.e., the...
Socioeconomic impacts of resource diversification from small-scale fishery development
12. Februar 2021 Purcell, S. W., Tagliafico, A., Cullis, B. R., Gogel, B. J. Research
The predicted future shortfall in seafood production from tropical small-scale fisheries demands support to help diversify income streams and food production for coastal communities. Livelihood diversification can comprise the enhancement or addition of components to existing fisheries, yet the likely socioeconomic impacts are unclear. With a long history of nondeleterious introductions, the marine snail “trochus” (Rochia nilotica) was introduced to Samoa from 2003 to 2006 to offer a new artisanal fishery resource. Some 15 years later, we surveyed 303 fishers using structured...
Beyond social-ecological traps: fostering transformations towards sustainability
08. Februar 2021 Eriksson, H., Blythe, J. L., ?sterblom, H., Olsson, P. Guest Editorial
This Special Feature is motivated by the rigorous, and growing, theoretical and empirical body of literature on social-ecological traps. Building on the foundational literature, which describes the context in many of the places where we work, we now look forward and ask how we can better understand and enable the breaking and escaping of social-ecological traps. In this Special Feature we focus on this frontier in the field and use the trap metaphor as a unifying framework for collating empirically derived insights on overcoming challenges across diverse geographies, sectors, and...
Nature’s contributions to people: coproducing quality of life from multifunctional landscapes
05. Februar 2021 Bruley, E., Locatelli, B., Lavorel, S. Research
Nature’s contributions to human well-being within social-ecological systems have been widely studied using multiple conceptual frameworks, yet there is a growing need to better articulate how both humans and nature contribute to quality of life. We present an operationalization of the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) conceptual framework with an in-depth analysis of the coproduction of nature’s contributions to people (NCP) in a mountain social-ecological system. Based on a participatory process questioning stakeholders on nature’s...
Meeting places and social capital supporting rural landscape stewardship: A Pan-European horizon scanning
05. Februar 2021 Angelstam, P., Fedoriak, M., Cruz, F., Mu?oz-Rojas, J., Yamelynets, T., Manton, M., Washbourne, C., Dobrynin, D., Izakovičova, Z., Jansson, N., Jaroszewicz, B., Kanka, R., Kavtarishvili, M., Kopperoinen, L., Lazdinis, M., Metzger, M. J., ?z?t, D., Pavloska Gjorgjieska, D., Sijtsma, F. J., Stryamets, N., Tolunay, A., Turkoglu, T., Van der Moolen, B., Zagidullina, A., Zhuk, A. Research
Achieving sustainable development as an inclusive societal process in rural landscapes, and sustainability in terms of functional green infrastructures for biodiversity conservation and ecosystem services, are wicked challenges. Competing claims from various sectors call for evidence-based adaptive collaborative governance. Leveraging such approaches requires maintenance of several forms of social interactions and capitals. Focusing on Pan-European regions with different environmental histories and cultures, we estimate the state and trends of two groups of factors underpinning rural...
Toward an urgent yet deliberate conservation strategy: sustaining social-ecological systems in rangelands of the Northern Great Plains, Montana
05. Februar 2021 Epstein, K., Wood, D. J. A., Roemer, K., Currey, B., Duff, H., Gay, J. D., Goemann, H. M., Loewen, S., Milligan, M. C., Wendt, J. A. F., Brookshire, E., Maxwell, B. D., McNew, L., McWethy, D. B., Stoy, P. C., Haggerty, J. H. Synthesis
Urgency and deliberateness are often at odds when executing conservation projects, especially as the scale and complexity of objectives increases. The pace of environmental degradation supports immediate and measurable action. However, best practices for adaptive governance and building resilient social-ecological systems call for more deliberate efforts and participatory processes, which can be slow. We explore conflicts between urgency and deliberateness and the potential for their reconciliation through a case study of the challenges of conserving native rangelands in North...
Combining biophysical optimization with economic preference analysis for agricultural land-use allocation
03. Februar 2021 Kaim, A., Bartkowski, B., Lienhoop, N., Schr?ter-Schlaack, C., Volk, M., Strauch, M. Research
Agricultural production provides food, feed, and renewable energy, generates economic profits, and contributes to social welfare in many ways. However, intensive farming is one of the biggest threats to biodiversity. Although current market forces and regulations such as the European Union’s Common Agricultural Policy, seem to foster agricultural intensification, a socially and ecologically optimal land-use strategy should seek to reconcile agricultural production with biodiversity conservation. Research on spatial land-use allocation lacks studies that consider both aspects...
Bogs, birds, and berries in Belarus: the governance and management dynamics of wetland restoration in a state-centric, top-down context
28. Januar 2021 Dawson, L., Elbakidze, M., Schellens, M., Shkaruba, A., Angelstam, P. K. Research
Wetlands are complex social-ecological systems, which provide both important habitat for species, and multiple tangible and intangible benefits for people. Sustaining long-term benefits through restoration, conservation, and sustainable use is often linked to integrative and adaptive approaches to wetlands management. Such approaches assume democratic ideals, and require multilevel, multisector, and multiactor participation in governance and management arrangements. How then can functional wetlands be restored and sustainably managed as social-ecological systems in strongly state-centric...
Promises and limits of community-based organizations in bridging mismatches of scale: a case study on collaborative governance on federal lands
28. Januar 2021 Lee, J., Baggio, J. Research
Federal land managers in the United States are tasked with managing a vast array of resources for current and future generations. However, coordinating action among multiple stakeholders across diverse landscapes is challenging given that the organizations and institutions set up to govern federal lands are often unable to overcome scale-related challenges. Unconventional oil and gas development is often a contentious issue on federal lands. Identifying how to bridge scale mismatches in this sector is critical for achieving management objectives. To gain a deeper understanding of the...
Soils, landscapes, and cultural concepts of favor and disfavor within complex adaptive systems and ResourceCultures: human-land interactions during the Holocene
27. Januar 2021 James, B. R., Teuber, S., Miera, J. J., Downey, S., Henkner, J., Knopf, T., Correa, F. A., H?pfer, B., Scherer, S., Michaelis, A., Wessel, B. M., Gibbons, K. S., K?hn, P., Scholten, T. Synthesis
We review and contrast three frameworks for analyzing human-land interactions in the Holocene: the traditional concept of favored and disfavored landscapes, the new concept of ResourceCultures from researchers at University of T?bingen, and complex adaptive systems, which is a well-established contemporary approach in interdisciplinary research. Following a theoretical integration of fundamental concepts, we analyze three paired case studies involving modern agriculture in Germany and Belize, prehistorical changes in land use in southwest Germany, and aquaculture on the Pacific and...
Social learning for building community resilience to cyclones: role of indigenous and local knowledge, power, and institutions in coastal Bangladesh
26. Januar 2021 Choudhury, M., Haque, C. Emdad, Nishat, A., Byrne, S. Research
Despite wide recognition of the role of social learning in building community resilience, few studies have thus far analyzed how the power–knowledge–institution matrix shapes social learning processes that in turn foster resilience outcomes. Drawing insights from the biopolitical lens of resilience, we take a critical stance on programmatic interventions for community resilience and social learning, arguing that local knowledge, beliefs, practices, and social memory (SM) are crucial elements in social learning processes for building community resilience to shocks and stresses...
A decision support tool for assessing cumulative effects on an Arctic migratory tundra caribou population
26. Januar 2021 Russell, D., Gunn, A., White, R. Research
As large migratory caribou herds decline globally and regional climate trends point to a warmer future, there is a need and a legislative requirement to ensure impacts of industrial development are fully assessed, particularly with respect to cumulative effects. In this paper we use a current proposal, the potential leasing of the 1002 lands on the Alaskan Arctic coastal plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge for hydrocarbon development, to project the potential cumulative effects on the international Porcupine Caribou Herd. Using the caribou cumulative effects model, an existing...
Linking the social, economic, and agroecological: a resilience framework for dairy farming
21. Januar 2021 Cradock-Henry, N. A. Research
Agriculture is a major economic driver in Aotearoa-New Zealand (New Zealand), led by export earnings from dairy farming. Dairying is uniquely exposed to climatic- and nonclimatic socioeconomic stressors, which have their greatest effects on production and yield. The growing need to consider these and other changes is accelerating efforts aimed at ensuring greater resilience, adaptability, and flexibility within the industry. To gain insight into these dynamics at the farm-level, a resilience-based assessment framework was piloted with three different types of dairy farming systems...
Measuring rural community resilience: case studies in New Zealand and Vermont, USA
12. Januar 2021 Payne, P. R., Kaye-Blake, W. H., Kelsey, A., Brown, M., Niles, M. T. Research
To date, methods for assessing community resilience have focused predominantly on disaster recovery. Those that do focus on broader social-ecological and psychological contexts tend to be qualitative and have not been validated at the community scale. This situation reveals a need for quantitative measurement tools for assessing community resilience to slow-moving change such as rural depopulation or climate change. Our research provides a proof of concept across two diverse contexts, New Zealand and Vermont, USA, that community resilience can be quantified and broken down into dimensions...