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Environmental Management 

Latest Results for Environmental Management
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The Impact of Federal and State Conservation Programs on Farmer Nitrogen Management
01. Oktober 2018
Abstract The U.S. federal government, as well as many state and local governments, operate a number of conservation programs aimed at ameliorating the environmental problems associated with agriculture. While motives and barriers to conservation program participation and adoption of conservation practices have been extensively studied, the direct impacts of programs on ongoing farm operations remains underexplored. To examine the effects of conservation programs on nitrogen management, an aspect of crop production with significant environmental impacts we conducted...
Contamination Level, Source Identification and Risk Assessment of Potentially Toxic Elements (PTEs) and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Street Dust of an Important Commercial Center in...
01. Oktober 2018
Abstract The geochemical nature and health hazards of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the street dust of Bandar Abbas, Iran, are investigated in this study based on 27 street dust samples. Mean concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn, As, Sb, and Hg revealed elevated concentrations as compared to the world soil average. Calculated enrichment factors (EFs) indicated that there is very high contamination in dust particles owing to anthropogenic emissions. Two main sources of PTEs are traffic emissions (Cu, Pb, Zn, Co, Mn, Fe, As, Cd...
The Influence of Angler Values, Involvement, Catch Orientation, Satisfaction, Agency Trust, and Demographics on Support for Habitat Protection and Restoration Versus Stocking in Publicly Managed...
01. Oktober 2018
Abstract Resource managers benefit from knowledge of angler support for fisheries management strategies. Factors including angler values (protection, utilitarian, and dominance), involvement (attraction, centrality, social, identity affirmation, and expression), catch-related motivations (catching some, many, and big fish, and keeping fish), satisfaction, agency trust, and demographics may relate to fisheries management preferences. Using results from a mail survey of Minnesota resident anglers, we explored how these factors were related to budget support for fish...
Assessing the Effects of Fire Disturbances and Timber Management on Carbon Storage in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem
01. Oktober 2018
Abstract Accurate characterization of Carbon (C) consequences of forest disturbances and management is critical for informed climate mitigation and adaptation strategies. While research into generalized properties of the forest C cycle informs policy and provides abstract guidance to managers, most management occurs at local scales and relies upon monitoring systems that can consistently provide C cycle assessments that explicitly apply to a defined time and place. We used an inventory-based forest monitoring and simulation tool to quantify C storage effects of actual...
Beyond Metrics? The Role of Hydrologic Baseline Archetypes in Environmental Water Management
01. Oktober 2018
Abstract Balancing ecological and human water needs often requires characterizing key aspects of the natural flow regime and then predicting ecological response to flow alterations. Flow metrics are generally relied upon to characterize long-term average statistical properties of the natural flow regime (hydrologic baseline conditions). However, some key aspects of hydrologic baseline conditions may be better understood through more complete consideration of continuous patterns of daily, seasonal, and inter-annual variability than through summary metrics. Here we...
Clarification of Governance Relevant to the Sustainable Management of Marine Species and Habitats within the United Kingdom: An Overview of Regional, National and International Authorities...
01. Oktober 2018
Abstract Marine management developments are occurring across the United Kingdom with the major aim to ensure economic growth and security of marine resources via the provision of legislative guidelines for sustainable management of activities within the marine environment. Many of these directives also provide guidance for maintaining ecologically valuable and/or endangered species and habitats that exist alongside, and may also support, marine activities/use. Marine governance is largely guided by several key directives laid out and implemented by governing authorities...
Mercury Contamination in Diamondback Terrapins in New Jersey
01. Oktober 2018
Abstract Mercury contamination in consumed foods poses a significant threat to human health globally. The consumption of mercury-contaminated turtle meat is of special concern due to mercury’s capability to bioaccumulate and biomagnify in organisms. Turtles are long-lived predators, allowing for a high degree of bioaccumulation and biomagnification of contaminants. In the U.S., diamondback terrapins (Malaclemys terrapin) are legally harvested in several states throughout their range. Harvested turtles are usually sold to both local and global markets mainly for human...
Iowa Stream Nitrate, Discharge and Precipitation: 30-Year Perspective
01. Oktober 2018
Abstract We evaluated Iowa Department of Natural Resources nitrate (NO3–N) and US Geological Survey hydrological data from 1987 to 2016 in nine agricultural watersheds to assess how transport of this pollutant has changed in the US state of Iowa. When the first 15 years of the 30-year water-quality record is compared to the second 15 years (1987–2001 and 2002–2016), three different metrics used to quantify NO3–N transport all indicate levels of this pollutant are increasing. Yield of NO3–N (kg ha−1) averaged 18% higher in the second 15 years, while...
A New Modeling Approach To Prioritize Riparian Restoration To Reduce Sediment Loading in Two Virginia River Basins
01. Oktober 2018
Abstract Human impact, particularly land cover changes (e.g., agriculture, construction) increase erosion and sediment loading into streams. Benthic species are negatively affected by silt deposition that coats and embeds stream substrate. Given that riparian buffers are effective sediment filters, riparian restoration is increasingly implemented by conservation groups to protect stream habitats. Limited funding and a multitude of impaired streams warrant the need for cost-effective prioritization of potential restoration actions. We created a decision-support framework...
Adaptation Design Tool for Climate-Smart Management of Coral Reefs and Other Natural Resources
01. Oktober 2018
Abstract Scientists and managers of natural resources have recognized an urgent need for improved methods and tools to enable effective adaptation of management measures in the face of climate change. This paper presents an Adaptation Design Tool that uses a structured approach to break down an otherwise overwhelming and complex process into tractable steps. The tool contains worksheets that guide users through a series of design considerations for adapting their planned management actions to be more climate-smart given changing environmental stressors. Also provided...
The Drivers and Impacts of Selling Soil for Brick Making in Bangladesh
01. Oktober 2018
Abstract Soil degradation is an important threat to sustainable agriculture. In Bangladesh, brick production contributes to soil loss as the country relies on clay-rich soil for brick making. An in-depth understanding of why farmers sell soil and the corresponding impacts on agricultural productivity is critical for developing and implementing new policies for utilizing alternate materials and methods in Bangladesh and other areas that continue to rely on fired clay bricks as their primary building material. A team of anthropologists conducted 120 structured interviews...
Collaboration Across Worldviews: Managers and Scientists on Hawaiʻi Island Utilize Knowledge Coproduction to Facilitate Climate Change Adaptation
01. Oktober 2018
Abstract Complex socio-ecological issues, such as climate change have historically been addressed through technical problem solving methods. Yet today, climate science approaches are increasingly accounting for the roles of diverse social perceptions, experiences, cultural norms, and worldviews. In support of this shift, we developed a research program on Hawaiʻi Island that utilizes knowledge coproduction to integrate the diverse worldviews of natural and cultural resource managers, policy professionals, and researchers within actionable science products. Through...
Towards Mechanistic Hydrological Limits: A Literature Synthesis to Improve the Study of Direct Linkages between Sediment Transport and Periphyton Accrual in Gravel-Bed Rivers
01. Oktober 2018
Abstract Altered hydrological, sediment, and nutrient regimes can lead to dramatic increases in periphyton abundance in rivers below impoundments. Flushing flows are a commonly adopted strategy to manage the excess periphyton that can accumulate, but in practice they often prove ineffective. Designing hydrological regimes that include flushing flows may be overlooking key processes in periphyton removal, particularly the role of abrasion and molar action induced by substrate movement. Setting flow targets which aim to initiate substrate movement are likely to improve...
A Reciprocal Triangulation Process For Identifying And Mapping Potential Land Use Conflict
01. Oktober 2018
Abstract Land use in many areas is highly contested. An understanding of the nature of such conflicts, and of spatial variation in their intensity, is required to develop planning solutions. We present a novel process for attaining these outcomes which involves mapping of values and potential conflict between stakeholders determined using participatory GIS (PGIS) processes. Our starting point was an a priori identification of the values that were potentially in conflict. We produced quantitative and qualitative maps of each of the values that formed a basis for workshop...
The Relationship Between Volunteer Motivations and Variation in Frequency of Participation in Conservation Activities
22. September 2018
Abstract Environmental conservation activities such as biodiversity and natural resource management are supported by many eager volunteers in many countries. Because it takes a great deal of time and effort to train new members, volunteer programs are important for preventing the burnout of volunteers and maintaining their motivations to participate. This study explored whether motivations that inspire the future frequency of participation, which volunteers prefer, differ depending on the previous frequency of participation in conservation activities. Online surveys were...
Adoption of Sustainable Agriculture Practices among Farmers in Kentucky, USA
22. September 2018
Abstract Promoting the sustainable agricultural practices at an individual farm level is essential to ensure agricultural sustainability. This study analyzed whether and how various factors related to farm or farmers’ characteristics influence the adoption intensity of sustainable agriculture practices. We used a negative binomial regression model to fit the data collected from a mail survey of farmers in Kentucky, USA. Our results showed that the adoption intensity of sustainable agriculture practices varied significantly among agricultural districts in Kentucky...
A multi-criterion approach for prioritizing areas in urban ecosystems for active restoration following invasive plant control
21. September 2018
Abstract Resources for biodiversity conservation and invasive plant management are limited, and restoring invaded vegetation is labour-intensive and expensive. Managers must prioritize their actions to achieve their goals efficiently and effectively. They must distinguish between areas that require only the removal of invasive alien plants (“passive restoration”) from those that require additional restoration measures (“active restoration”). This study used a multi-criterion approach (Analytical Hierarchical Process) to develop a framework for identifying areas...
Assessment of Water Resources Sustainability in Mainland China in Terms of Water Intensity and Efficiency
21. September 2018
Abstract Investigation into water resources sustainability (WRS) is vital for a regional sustainable development strategy. This paper aimed to quantitatively evaluate the WRS in mainland China using a three-layer indicator system. Three important factors significantly affecting WRS are: water resources quantity (WRQ), water intensity (WI) and water efficiency (WE). Assessment of the three indicators was carried out in 356 cities where each indicator was graded from “very low” to “very high” according to the value magnitude. China was then classified into four zones...
Perceptions of Government and Research Expert Groups and Their Implications for Watershed Management in Oklahoma, USA
21. September 2018
Abstract The collaborative approach for sustainable management of watersheds is built on engagement of diverse stakeholders. Climate variability and anthropogenic activities increasingly impose challenges to successful management, as do contrasts in stakeholder perceptions about those processes. To assess differences in perceptions about watershed issues, we conducted a focus group meeting of expert stakeholder groups from research institutions, and state and federal agencies in the management of Cimarron River Watershed, Oklahoma. We employed the Strengths, Weaknesses...
Limitations of Water Resources Infrastructure for Reducing Community Vulnerabilities to Extremes and Uncertainty of Flood and Drought
20. September 2018
Abstract Debate and deliberation surrounding climate change has shifted from mitigation toward adaptation, with much of the adaptation focus centered on adaptive practices, and infrastructure development. However, there is little research assessing expected impacts, potential benefits, and design challenges that exist for reducing vulnerability to expected climate impacts. The uncertainty of design requirements and associated government policies, and social structures that reflect observed and projected changes in the intensity, duration, and frequency of water-related...