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Environmental Management 

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Expanding Staff Voice in Protected Area Management Effectiveness Assessments within Kenya’s Maasai Mara National Reserve
13. November 2018
Abstract The concept of protected areas (PA) is one of the most widely used policy tools for biodiversity conservation including habitat and wildlife protection. Despite the importance and emphasis placed on protected area management, biodiversity is still in decline and more species are in danger of extinction. Some analyses have indicated that more than 40% of protected areas are poorly managed. To improve management effectiveness, the inclusion of diverse stakeholder information in articulating management strategies has been strongly encouraged; however, stakeholder...
How Does Socio-institutional Diversity Affect Collaborative Governance of Social–Ecological Systems in Practice?
13. November 2018
Abstract Social and institutional diversity (“diversity” hereafter) are important dimensions in collaborative environmental governance, but lack empirical assessment. In this paper, we examine three aspects of diversity hypothesized in the literature as being important in collaborative forms of environmental governance—the presence of diverse actors, diverse perspectives, and diverse institutions. The presence of these aspects and formative conjectures were empirically considered using a mixed methods approach in four biosphere reserves in Sweden and Canada. We...
A prescription for drug-free rivers: uptake of pharmaceuticals by a widespread streamside willow
12. November 2018
Abstract Following human excretion and limited removal with wastewater treatment, pharmaceuticals are accumulating in rivers worldwide. These chemicals can challenge the health of fish and aquatic organisms and since rivers provide drinking water sources, there is concern for cumulative exposure to humans. In this study, we discovered that sandbar willow (Salix exigua), a predominant riparian shrub along streams throughout North America, has the capacity to quickly remove pharmaceuticals from aqueous solutions. Our study tracked [3H]- or [14C]-labeled substances including...
Adapting Urban Water Systems to Manage Scarcity in the 21st Century: The Case of Los Angeles
09. November 2018
Abstract Acute water shortages for large metropolitan regions are likely to become more frequent as climate changes impact historic precipitation levels and urban population grows. California and Los Angeles County have just experienced a severe four year drought followed by a year of high precipitation, and likely drought conditions again in Southern California. We show how the embedded preferences for distant sources, and their local manifestations, have created and/or exacerbated fluctuations in local water availability and suboptimal management. As a socio technical...
Dredging Intensity: A Spatio-Temporal Indicator for Managing Marine Resources
01. November 2018
Abstract The sustainability of offshore sand reserves and the impact of their exploitation for coastal resilience can be assessed by resource managers via GIS. The GIS model to do this requires monitoring of the dredger location (including speed and displacement, if available). The designated borrow area is divided into grid cells, in this example, 100 × 100 m. The aggregate count of positions in each cell can be displayed in a graphic image called a “heat map” (or “density map” or “timeprint”) where various intensities of colors represents the number...
An Examination of Whitewater Boaters’ Place Attachment and Specialization in Four Different River Settings
01. November 2018
Abstract Research on place attachment suggests that place identity and place dependence differ between recreationists with varying levels of specialization, recreating in different settings and with different resource proximities to their home. To further explore this relationship, we compared place attachment and recreation specialization of whitewater boaters in four different river settings. Data were collected on three rivers in the US and one in Austria. Place attachment was measured using four place identity and four place dependence items. Recreation...
Perspectives on Driving Changes in Project-based Cumulative Effects Assessment for Biodiversity: Lessons from the Canadian Experience
01. November 2018
Abstract Cumulative effects assessment (CEA), as a required practice for the environmental assessment (EA) of projects in many countries, faces several practical challenges, especially related to biodiversity. Drawing on the perspectives and experiences of Canadian EA practitioners, this paper explores options or drivers of change for improving project-based assessment to better tackle cumulative effects on biodiversity. An on-line survey was conducted with 40 professionals from the private sector, government departments/agencies, universities, and non-governmental...
People-Centered and Ecosystem-Based Knowledge Co-Production to Promote Proactive Biodiversity Conservation and Sustainable Development in Namibia
01. November 2018
Abstract Growing levels of uncertainty and vulnerability generated by land use conversion and climate change set demands on local communities and national institutions to build synergies between the diverse array of knowledge systems in order to provide policy makers and practitioners with the best available information to decide what urgent actions must be taken. Science policy arenas and agreements such as the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) and the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) recognize the importance of different...
Nitrogen Emissions-Based Assessment of Anthropogenic Regional Ecological Risk: An Example of Taiwanese Urbanization, 1990–2015
01. November 2018
Abstract This study proposes a framework for evaluating anthropogenic nitrogen emissions and local vulnerability in order to assess regional ecological risk of human activity during a stable urbanization process. Taiwan, an isolated island with a unique environment, intensive agriculture, concentrated industries, and stable urbanization, was an ideal location for testing this framework. Local vulnerability is influenced by social characteristics, economic development, environmental protection, and other indicators related to these. Within the context of urbanization...
The Transition of EU Water Policy Towards the Water Framework Directive’s Integrated River Basin Management Paradigm
01. November 2018
Abstract Introduced in 2000 to reform and rationalise water policy and management across the European Union (EU) Member States (MS), the Water Framework Directive (WFD), the EU’s flagship legislation on water protection, is widely acknowledged as the embodiment and vessel for the application of the Integrated River Basin Management (IRBM) paradigm. Its ecological objectives, perhaps even more challenging than the prospect of statutory catchment planning itself, were for all EU waters to achieve ‘good status’ by 2015 (except where exemptions applied) and the...
Using Strategic Adaptive Management to Facilitate Implementation of Environmental Flow Programs in Complex Social-Ecological Systems
01. November 2018
Abstract Freshwater resource management is becoming increasingly complex as human pressure increases on available water resources, and as more participatory transparent decision-making frameworks are being advocated within water management. Complexity is further increased when environmental flow programs are integrated into existing water management programs. Adaptive management frameworks present an obvious choice for integration and implementation of environmental flows, but have so far failed to become the dominant framework. The research presented here highlights...
Windbreak Efficiency in Agricultural Landscape of the Central Europe: Multiple Approaches to Wind Erosion Control
01. November 2018
Abstract Windbreak is one of the key factors for making the agriculture systems successful through reduced wind erosion, improved microclimate, increased biodiversity, and production potentiality of timber and agricultural crops. Even though windbreak occupies only a small part of agricultural landscape, its advantages on the ecological and economical perspective are quite high. This study evaluated the effects of three windbreak types on the wind erosion control in relation to their structural diversities, wind-speed reduction, and optical porosities in the central part...
Linking forest successional dynamics to community dependence on provisioning ecosystem services from the Central Himalayan forests of Uttarakhand
01. November 2018
Abstract The study examines the relationship between Ecosystem Services (ES) supply and vegetation dynamics through a series of five vegetation types representing a hypothetical successional sequence (i.e., Grassland, Pine, Pine-Oak mix, Open Oak, Dense Oak). We quantified and compared the dependence of local livelihood on provisioning services from forests at each level of succession and the resource extraction methods used to obtain desired products through a structured social survey covering 19 villages and 702 households in Tehri Garhwal and Dehradun districts of...
Building Stakeholder Awareness and Engagement Strategy to Enhance Biosphere Reserve Performance and Sustainability: The Case of Kien Giang, Vietnam
01. November 2018
Abstract Local application of the biosphere reserve concept in Kien Giang, Vietnam was examined to see how it compared with other biosphere reserves both in Vietnam and internationally and from that to assess the level of adoption and what could be limiting processes. This was undertaken mainly through qualitative document analysis, field surveys, and extensive interviews of stakeholders. While the designation the Kien Giang Biosphere Reserve and establishment of the management regulation conformed with the conceptual model and criteria outlined by UNESCO, the practical...
Implementing Landscape Scale Conservation across Organizational Boundaries: Lessons from the Central Appalachian Region, United States
01. November 2018
Abstract Natural resources across the United States are increasingly managed at the landscape scale through cooperation among multiple organizations and landowners. United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service (USFS) agency leaders have widely promoted this approach since 2009 when Secretary of Agriculture Vilsack called for “all lands” management. Landscape scale projects have been undertaken to address multiple goals such as single species conservation, resilience to fire, invasive species eradication, and others. The West Virginia Restoration Venture...
Land Transition and Intensity Analysis of Cropland Expansion in Northern Ghana
01. November 2018
Abstract Cropland expansion to meet the growing demand for food and fuel is a driving factor in forest degradation. Over the next few decades, increases in the area of agricultural land are expected to be concentrated in sub-Saharan Africa, which still has large tracts of unexploited land suitable for agricultural production. We analyzed land-cover change in northern Ghana between 1984 and 2015 and compared it with background social factors associated with land change. Maps from three points in time were analyzed to identify the impact of cropland expansion on the...
Effects of Management Treatments on Regeneration of a Geographically Disjunct, Relictual Hybrid Aspen ( Populus x s mithii ) Population in the Central Great Plains, USA
01. November 2018
Abstract Populus xsmithii is an uncommon hybrid of quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) and bigtooth aspen (Populus grandidentata). Like its parents, Populus xsmithii is an early successional member of boreal forest communities, dependent on disturbance events that clear areas of competitive stems and spur an increase in clonal suckering. In recent years, aspen dieback has been noted across much of the western United States, a condition characterized by mortality of older stems and a lack of recruitment of suckers to maturity. In the Niobrara River Valley of Cherry...
Farmer Perceptions of Climate Change, Observed Trends and Adaptation of Agriculture in Pakistan
19. Oktober 2018
Abstract Farmers’ willingness and ability to adapt agricultural systems depend on their knowledge about changes in climate and perceived risks of extreme events. Using cross-sectional data of 450 farmers collected from three agro-ecological zones of Punjab, Pakistan, this study investigates farmer perceptions of climate change and their agreement with observed climatic trends. In addition, this study explores the correlation between different adaptation stages (perceptions, intentions, and adaptation) and their key drivers using a Multivariate Probit Model. This study...
Food Footprint as a Measure of Sustainability for Grazing Dairy Farms
11. Oktober 2018
Abstract Livestock productions require significant resources allocation in the form of land, water, energy, air, and capital. Meanwhile, owing to increase in the global demand for livestock products, it is wise to consider sustainable livestock practices. In the past few decades, footprints have emerged as indicators for sustainability assessment. In this study, we are introducing a new footprint measure to assess sustainability of a grazing dairy farm while considering carbon, water, energy, and economic impacts of milk production. To achieve this goal, a representative...
The Impact of Federal and State Conservation Programs on Farmer Nitrogen Management
01. Oktober 2018
Abstract The U.S. federal government, as well as many state and local governments, operate a number of conservation programs aimed at ameliorating the environmental problems associated with agriculture. While motives and barriers to conservation program participation and adoption of conservation practices have been extensively studied, the direct impacts of programs on ongoing farm operations remains underexplored. To examine the effects of conservation programs on nitrogen management, an aspect of crop production with significant environmental impacts we conducted...