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Urban Ecosystems 

Latest Results for Urban Ecosystems
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Correction to: Colonization and habitat selection of a declining farmland species in urban areas
01. Dezember 2020
In our paper, using distance sampling, we estimated the population density of hares in Aarhus city to 6.8 hares/km2.
What’s in a yardscape? A case study of emergent ecosystem services and disservices within resident yardscape discourses in Minnesota
01. Dezember 2020
Abstract Residential yardscapes are at the forefront of human interaction with nature for those living in urban areas across Europe and North America. In recent years a significant amount of research has investigated urban green spaces using the ecosystem services framework (ES) along with ecosystem disservices (ED) and how such spaces deliver urban ecosystem services (UES). However, a gap exists in understanding how ES and ED manifest themselves in the more specific context of residential yardscapes. Specifically, do homeowners conceptualize ES and ED when talking...
Wetland plant community variation across replicate urban to rural gradients: non-native species as both drivers and passengers in systems impacted by anthropogenic land-use
01. Dezember 2020
Abstract Anthropogenic land-use change impacts ecological communities in urban and rural landscapes, and wetlands are particularly vulnerable despite the valuable ecosystem services they provide. Urbanized non-wetland systems are often enriched in non-native plant species, and similar patterns in wetlands would have implications for ecosystem function and biodiversity. We evaluated landscape-scale patterns of plant community diversity across gradients of rural to urban land-use, testing whether diversity was related to environmental conditions indicative of surrounding...
Feeding habits of Anolis sagrei , an introduced species, in urban ecosystems of Guayas Province
01. Dezember 2020
Abstract To maintain a stable population, an introduced species must be capable of exploiting varied resources and adapting to environmental conditions different from its native range. The brown anole (Anolis sagrei), one of the most prolific invasive species worldwide, is well established in Ecuador—especially in urban environments throughout Guayaquil and Samborondón (Guayas province). In this research, we describe the feeding habits of male and female brown anoles collected from six different sites: a regenerated wetland ecosystem and five city gardens. We...
What Happens on Islands, doesn’t Stay on Islands: Patterns of Synchronicity in Mosquito Nuisance and Host-Seeking Activity between a Mangrove Island and Adjacent Coastal Development
01. Dezember 2020
Abstract Coastal development is expanding globally in response to mass human migration, yet urban planning guidelines often overlook the problems that human encroachment on or near coastal mosquito habitat may cause. This study aimed at elucidating the frequency and magnitude of dispersal of highly vagile saltmarsh mosquitoes from productive off-shore bay islands to adjacent coastal human developments. Inter-population dynamics and daily host-seeking activity of saltmarsh mosquitoes were monitored daily at 15-min intervals within a productive bay island and adjacent...
Landscape Context Influences the Abundance and Richness of Native Lady Beetles Occupying Urban Vacant Land
01. Dezember 2020
Abstract Urban insect communities are structured by hierarchical filters including regional processes, human facilitation, and species interactions. We sought to inform future urban conservation endeavors by identifying how landscape composition and configuration as well as the management of vacant lot greenspaces affect native lady beetle (Coccinellidae) community structure within the city of Cleveland, Ohio, USA. We found no effect of habitat treatment on native lady beetle abundance when comparing vacant lots seeded with native wildflowers and those with naturally...
Urban tree growth models for two nearby cities show notable differences
01. Dezember 2020
Abstract Reliable models of urban tree growth over time are useful for selecting appropriate species for available planting sites, anticipating future tree maintenance and removal costs, and quantifying the benefits provided by trees. There is a need to develop growth models for multiple cities within the same climate region to understand the degree of variability for the same species in different cities. In this study, we developed tree growth models for 13 common street tree species in Cincinnati, Ohio, USA, based on field data and planting records. These models...
How Cortaderia selloana , an ornamental plant considered highly invasive, fails to spread from urban to natural habitats in Southern France
01. Dezember 2020
Abstract The role of urban areas in the introduction of alien plant species, and their subsequent spread in the countryside, has long been identified. However, it was mainly considered indirectly due to the lack of data on the frequency of planting of alien species and their early stages of colonization. In this study, we took advantage of the spectacular flowering of the pampa grass (Cortaderia selloana), a tall ornamental plant, visible from afar, to study the spatial dynamics of planted and naturalized stands (i.e. those resulting from seed dispersal) over 600 km2...
Woodland fragments in urban landscapes are important bat areas: an example of the endangered Bechstein’s bat Myotis bechsteinii
01. Dezember 2020
Abstract Urban areas are increasing globally causing fragmentation and loss of habitats for many forest dwelling species. At the same time new habitats are created, which may be exploited by species with a broad ecological tolerance. Bats form the largest mammal group living in cities in Central Europe. Species diversity might be higher in some cities compared to rural areas. Yet, habitat-specialists struggle with rapid landscape change and urban development. The Bechstein’s bat Myotis bechsteinii is dependent on old growth deciduous forests that supply tree cavities...
Estimates of above-ground tree carbon after projected land-use and land cover change in a subtropical urban watershed
01. Dezember 2020
Abstract This study investigates the effect of land-use and land cover (LULC) change on above-ground tree carbon (AGTC) in a subbasin of the Tampa Bay Watershed, Florida. LULC change was integrated with AGTC to project future quantities under three landscape scenarios: baseline, increased and aggressive rates of development. A 12% increase in total landscape AGTC occurred from 2006 to 2011 as agriculture and rangeland were converted to residential, infrastructure and built classes. Scenario projections for 2016 show an additional increase of 11% AGTC under baseline...
Aquatic landscape change, extirpations, and introductions in the Chicago Region
01. Dezember 2020
Abstract Prior to European settlement, swamps, marshes, lakes, and streams were the major landscape features of the Chicago region. Much of this has been altered or lost in the past one-hundred-and-fifty years. We examined the changes in aquatic environments and fauna in Cook County, Illinois, using 1890–1910 and 1997–2017 as our focus intervals. The extents of aquatic features from historical topographic maps were imported into a GIS database and compared with the modern USGS National Hydrography Dataset. Historical and modern spatial data on aquatic animals were...
Where are the turtles when they are not? Underwater refuges used by Hydromedusa tectifera COPE, 1869 in a suburban stream
01. Dezember 2020
Abstract Habitat requirements of Hydromedusa tectifera from an urban impacted stream from the Buenos Aires province, the Rodriguez stream, are here studied. We describe the type of underwater refuges, how they are used in different stream sections, stream margins, year season, size class and sex of the individuals, and analyze patterns of recurrence and aggregative use of refuges. Fieldwork was carried out from March 2017 to January 2018. Turtles were caught manually recording the following variables: site, transect and margin, sex, straight carapace length, and weight...
The effect of artificial light at night on the biomass of caterpillars feeding in urban tree canopies
01. Dezember 2020
Abstract Alternation of day and night is the oldest cycle on Earth, which is increasingly disturbed by the accelerating rate of urbanization and technological development. Despite the ubiquity of light pollution in cities, many aspects of its influence on urban ecosystems are still poorly understood. Here we studied the effect of artificial light at night (ALAN) on the biomass of arboreal caterpillar populations, which are a major component of the diet of many insectivorous animals. We predicted that increasing ALAN intensity is associated with reduced caterpillar...
Urban vegetation cover correlates with environmental variables in a desert city: insights of mitigation measures to climate change
01. Dezember 2020
Abstract Green cover and air quality are important components of life quality and human ecology in arid lands. In the Sonoran Desert of Mexico, Hermosillo is the largest city with a population of 710,000. This city is currently affected by dust pollution and a large part of its population suffers respiratory diseases. Moreover, Hermosillo is considered highly vulnerable to climate change. The objective of this work was to correlate socio-economic variables such as population density and unpaved cover to total suspended particles (TSP), daily temperature oscillation (DTO...
Vegetated roofs in boreal climate support mobile open habitat arthropods, with differentiation between meadow and succulent roofs
01. Dezember 2020
Abstract Vegetated roofs are hoped to benefit urban wildlife, yet there are few empirical results regarding the conservation potential of such roofs. In this paper, we focus on arthropods on vegetated roofs. We vacuum sampled 17 succulent, meadow or succulent-meadow roofs, in Helsinki, Finland, and used order to species level information together with trait data to describe the communities. We evaluated the importance of biophysical roof characteristics on shaping arthropod assemblages to provide information concerning roof designs that promote rich arthropod fauna...
Interactive effects of urbanization and year on invasive and native ant diversity of sacred groves of South India
01. Dezember 2020
Abstract Urbanization is a major threat to native biodiversity. Invasion of tramp species is a major consequence of urbanization, which might threaten native species. Ants are established robust ecosystem indicators. We assessed the changes of ant community in sacred groves (SGs) of urban and rural landscapes of south India between 2013 and 2019, and asked, 1) what is the effect of urbanization on ant community? 2) has the population of invasive ants, particularly Anoplolepis gracilipes – a globally notorious tramp species, changed in response to urbanization and year...
Understanding foraging flexibility in urban vervet monkeys, Chlorocebus pygerythrus , for the benefit of human-wildlife coexistence
01. Dezember 2020
Abstract Generalist wildlife species often thrive in urban environments because of increased anthropogenic resources. However, human-wildlife interactions, especially if negative, raise concerns for urban wildlife management. An enhanced understanding of wildlife behavioural flexibility has been suggested to be a key tool to provide educated and effective management strategies. We therefore investigated how availability of semi-naturally occurring food affected behavioural foraging patterns of urban vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus pygerythrus), a generalist primate commonly...
Introduced and native plant species composition of vacant unmanaged green roofs in New York City
01. Dezember 2020
Abstract Vacant spaces, such as unplanted, unmanaged, or infrequently accessed green roofs, may play a critical role in sustaining biodiversity in cities. Initial plant composition of these spaces likely is contingent on seed dispersal and growing medium, yet no studies have directly characterized the effects of location or growing medium depth on plant diversity of unplanted green roofs. To address this gap, we studied first-year community composition of five unplanted green roofs in New York City (NY, USA). On each roof, 12 plots were established with media depths...
Microclimate in an urban park and its influencing factors: a case study of Tiantan Park in Beijing, China
26. November 2020
Abstract Construction of urban green spaces may effectively mitigate urban heat island effect. Better design of green spaces may improve their thermal performance, and therefore provide better ecosystem services in cities. Aiming at providing empirical evidence and further insights for urban park design, field measurement of air temperature (Ta) and relative humidity (Rh) was conducted in Tiantan Park in Beijing, China. Results show that within Tiantan park, 1.29–2.71 °C air temperature difference and 1.27–5.16% relative humidity difference were observed at...
Urban open spaces from a dispersal perspective: lessons from an individual-based model approach to assess the effects of landscape patterns on the viability of wildlife populations
25. November 2020
Abstract Green areas drawn on a city plan represent open spaces that have different meanings for humans and wildlife. Diverse kinds of green may influence species viability in urban environments. It is necessary to understand what those areas mean for wildlife populations and how land-use changes affect habitats and movements for making scientifically defensible planning and design decisions. My objective was to demonstrate how open space and urban development patterns affect the viability of wildlife populations in urbanizing landscapes from a movements perspective...