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Urban Ecosystems 

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Commentary on “Cues to Care: future directions for ecological landscapes”
01. Oktober 2020
Abstract This commentary responds to “Cues to Care: future directions for ecological landscapes” (Hostetler 2020), which states that “research on cues to care has been sparse”. In a series of papers between 1988-1997, I introduced Cues to Care (CTC) and developed related theories about how CTC function to introduce and sustain environmentally beneficial landscape elements in human-dominated landscapes, and we recently published a systematic analytical review of CTC, which included 212 scholarly papers (excluding my own work). I write this commentary to address...
Hatchery technology restores the spawning ground of phytophilic fish in the urban river of Yangtze Estuary, China
01. Oktober 2020
Abstract Due to the concrete slope protection projects conducted around urban rivers in many megalopolises, increased attention has been paid to fish biodiversity losses accompanying urban development. Hatchery technology is a promising method for restoring fisheries where spawning substrates are degraded and/or lacking. In the current study, a Phragmites australis stereo artificial floating wetland (SAFW) was constructed in an urban river (Tuanwang River, Shanghai), and palm sheets were laid under the SAFW frame to imitate the spawning grounds for phytophilous fish...
Planning for active management of future invasive pests affecting urban forests: the ecological and economic effects of varying Dutch elm disease management practices for street trees in Milwaukee, WI...
01. Oktober 2020
Abstract The effects of Dutch elm disease (DED, Ophiostoma novi-ulmi) on 106,738 American elm (Ulmus americana L.) trees in Milwaukee WI, USA was contrasted through ecologic and economic results of an Actual Outcome to management alternatives of No Control, three sanitation intensities (Best, Good, Fair), and No DED over 40 years. No Control was like the Actual Outcome with over 99% of trees dead. The greatest loss of ecosystem values and lowest net present value (NPV) and benefit to cost ratio (B/C) occurred with the Actual ($8 to $80 million NPV, 0.8 to 1.1 B/C) and...
Adapting to urban ecosystems: unravelling the foraging ecology of an opportunistic predator living in cities
01. Oktober 2020
Abstract The increasing urbanisation of the natural environment affects species differently. While most species cannot cope with these human impacts, others can persist or may even be favoured in these anthropogenic ecosystems. Among the different urban-adapted wildlife species, the populations of different species of opportunistic gulls have increased in urban areas and some have established breeding populations at a global scale. Although the ecology of these predators is relatively well-known in their natural environment, accurate knowledge about their urban ecology...
Spatial literacy influences stakeholder’s recognition and mapping of peri-urban and urban ecosystem services
01. Oktober 2020
Abstract There are several spatial valuation and ecosystem service mapping studies using participatory methods in North America, Australia, Europe and Japan. But, there is much less information from urban areas in the Global South using these approaches, particularly regarding the influence of spatial literacy on such methods. Accordingly, we tested how two-dimensional (2D) maps and three-dimensional models (3DCM) influence the identification of urban and peri-urban ecosystem services by different stakeholders near forested landscapes adjacent to Bogotá, Colombia. We...
Seed banks in urban vacant lots of a Latin American megacity are easily germinable and strongly dominated by exotic flora
01. Oktober 2020
Abstract Seed banks in the soil play a role in the temporal continuity and succession of vegetation in urban vacant lots. Therefore, it is necessary to know the composition, abundance and dynamics of the seeds stored in the lots’ soils to understand their effect on spontaneously established urban plants. We hypothesized that soil seed banks in the urban vacant lots of Santiago, Chile, have a high abundance of seeds and an easily germinable bank of mainly exotic annual weeds. Additionally, 5 drivers (lot age, lot area, distance to urban centre, distance to urban...
Foliar nitrogen characteristics of two tropical tree species along urban roads and parklands
01. Oktober 2020
Abstract Citywide tree planting in urban cities is occurring rapidly because of the benefits urban vegetation provide to the environment. Nutrient cycling in tropical urban ecosystems is relatively unknown. Nitrogen utilisation in urban and rural conditions can vary substantially hence foliar N characteristics of two common tree species grown in the tropics was compared between urban roads and parkland sites. The study was carried out in the tropical island state of Singapore situated 1° north of the equator. Foliar sampling of nitrate reductase, %C, %N, δ13C and δ13N...
Spatial and temporal variation of potential resource availability provided by street trees in southeastern Brazil
01. Oktober 2020
Abstract Street trees provide several ecosystem services in urban areas, including food for fauna. Tree species richness, composition and the relative abundance of native vs. non-native species can affect the populations of pollinators and dispersers. This work aims to evaluate the potential availability of food resources provided by street trees, in space and time, considering different pollination and seed dispersal syndromes at Santo André city (Southeastern Brazil). The georeferenced data for all catalogued tree individuals in the Urban Macrozone constituted our...
Identification of landscape multifunctionality along urban-rural gradient of coastal cities in South Korea
01. Oktober 2020
Abstract In order to reflect ecosystem services in environmental policies, it is necessary to assess multiple ecosystem services as well as the correlations among them in complex urban landscapes. Although landscape multifunctionality based on different land use statuses and intensity cause variations in the ecosystem services of complex urban landscapes, research that connect the urban landscape multifunctionality in terms of ecosystem services and urbanization processes is limited. In this study, we assessed ecosystem services and their correlations using correlation...
Ecological risk resonance of urbanization and its effect on geohazard disaster: the case of Freetown, Sierra Leone
01. Oktober 2020
Abstract Land use changes associated with urbanization may increase ecological risk and subsequent geohazard risk. Africa is particularly vulnerable at preset as, since 2005, the highest rates of rapid urbanization-associated forest degradation have occurred there. On August 14, 2017, a compound geohazard in Freetown, Sierra Leone, caused thousands of fatalities and destroyed hundreds of houses. Land use change is considered the main factor contributing to geohazard initiation. Here, we use Freetown as a case study to quantitatively assess the magnitude of the increase...
Effect of urbanization intensity on nest-site selection by Eurasian Magpies ( Pica pica )
01. Oktober 2020
Abstract As urban growth continues at an ever-increasing rate, it is important for city architects and city governments to understand the ecological effects of urbanization. As an ideal candidate for studies of urbanization, Eurasian Magpies (Pica pica) have been studied extensively in terms of nest placement in urban environments. However, there have been few quantitative studies on the effect of urbanization on nest-site selection. In this study, we investigated nests of Eurasian Magpies in a city in northern China. The results showed that magpies preferred to nest in...
Tree-circles spontaneous vegetation over a long climatic gradient
01. Oktober 2020
Abstract Urban flora varies between urban habitats within a city and between cities. We used a particular urban habitat - tree-circles to compare floristic differences between urban agglomerations along a long climatic gradient on a continental scale. We recorded flora of this unique habitat in seven West Balkan cities and compared it to seven cities from Western and Central Europe. On average, 91 species were found on tree-circles in every city in the Balkans (compared to 81 in continental Europe). Climate was the most important factor influencing species composition...
A dead letter? Urban conservation, management, and planning strategies from the Mexican urban bird literature
01. Oktober 2020
Abstract Urbanization has been identified as one of the major causes of species endangerment. Albeit important efforts by urban ecologists, there are still understudied regions in the globe with an important bias toward bird studies. Fortunately, studies from biodiversity-rich regions are increasingly growing; yet, with few exceptions, most evidence-based suggested urban conservation, management, and planning strategies have remained in the publications. The aim of this study was to draw them from a ‘dead letter’ by compiling all available publications carried out...
Tree species diversity, volume yield, biomass and carbon sequestration in urban forests in two Nigerian cities
01. Oktober 2020
Abstract Urban forests contribute greatly to the conservation of biodiversity and are able to store carbon in the same way as other forest ecosystems. This research investigated the diversity, volume yield, biomass and carbon sequestration of tree species in urban forests in two Nigerian cities (Port Harcourt and Ilorin) selected using simple random sampling. In Nigeria there is no record of quantitative assessment of carbon sequestration in urban forests. Biodiversity and growth data were obtained from about 20% of the built-up areas of the two cities. Non-destructive...
Effects of urbanisation and landscape heterogeneity mediated by feeding guild and body size in a community of coprophilous beetles
01. Oktober 2020
Abstract Although the impacts of urbanisation on biodiversity are well studied, the precise response of some invertebrate groups remains poorly known. Dung-associated beetles are little studied in an urban context, especially in temperate regions. We considered how landscape heterogeneity, assessed at three spatial scales (250, 500 and 1000 m radius), mediates the community composition of coprophilous beetles on a broad urban gradient. Beetles were sampled using simple dung-baited traps, placed at 48 sites stratified across three distance bands around a large urban...
Carbon stock and woody species diversity patterns in church forests along church age gradient in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
01. Oktober 2020
Abstract Most of the Ethiopian Orthodox Churches comprise natural and planted forests and trees on their premises. A study was conducted to investigate carbon stock and woody species diversity patterns along the church age gradient in Addis Ababa city. We hypothesized that the carbon stock would relate to the church age gradient. Thus, the study was conducted in forests belonging to churches that were selected in a stratified random sampling from four age categories with the year of establishments ranging from 1897 to 1993. Counting of all the woody species and DBH and...
Shading enhances plant species richness and diversity on an extensive green roof
01. Oktober 2020
Abstract Green roofs can promote biodiversity in urban areas. The extent to which green roofs stimulate plant diversity can depend on roof characteristics such as roof age, substrate depth and shading. We exploratively studied the vegetation on a Dutch green roof in 50 permanent plots (1 m2) over eight years (2012–2019) following roof construction. Plots were situated either on low substrate depth (6 cm light-weight extensive substrate) or high substrate depth (6 cm light-weight extensive substrate topped with 14 cm native soil) and differed in the amount of shading...
Passive recovery of an urban forest in the Pacific Northwest after removal of invasive plants
01. Oktober 2020
Abstract Urban natural areas are often heavily invaded by non-native plants. To restore the biodiversity and ecosystem function of these areas, land managers commonly remove invasive species. Partnering with Portland Parks and Recreation, I studied a management-scale removal of Hedera spp., Clematis vitalba, Ilex aquifolium and Prunus laurocerasus from a 59 ha forested natural area in Portland, OR. Over four years, I compared the community composition of this area with contiguous control areas where invasive species remained intact. Hedera, the most abundant invader...
Spatial distribution of sarcoptic mange ( Sarcoptes scabiei ) in urban foxes ( Vulpes vulpes ) in Great Britain as determined by citizen science
01. Oktober 2020
Abstract Urban areas may support high densities of wild carnivores, and pathogens can strongly influence carnivore populations. Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are hosts of sarcoptic mange (Sarcoptes scabiei), which infects numerous species, and transmission can be density dependent. In Great Britain, urban red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) have recently increased in population density and undergone range expansions. Here we investigate corresponding changes in urban fox mange prevalence. We predicted a higher prevalence closer to historic epi/enzootics and lower prevalence where...
Pollinator emerging from extensive green roofs: wild bees (Hymenoptera, Antophila) and hoverflies (Diptera, Syrphidae) in Geneva (Switzerland)
01. Oktober 2020
Abstract By the end of 2020, 75% of the Swiss population will live in cities. The urban densification will result in habitat and biodiversity loss. One solution to mitigate this loss in urban environments is the implementation of green roofs that are now recognised as a tool for the maintenance of epigeal and aerial arthropods. Green roofs can provide various services such as pollination and food supply for insects and various arthropods (e.g. arachnids) and animals (e.g. birds). The objective of this study was to evaluate the diversity of...