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Urban Ecosystems 

Latest Results for Urban Ecosystems
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Identification of landscape multifunctionality along urban-rural gradient of coastal cities in South Korea
05. April 2020
Abstract In order to reflect ecosystem services in environmental policies, it is necessary to assess multiple ecosystem services as well as the correlations among them in complex urban landscapes. Although landscape multifunctionality based on different land use statuses and intensity cause variations in the ecosystem services of complex urban landscapes, research that connect the urban landscape multifunctionality in terms of ecosystem services and urbanization processes is limited. In this study, we assessed ecosystem services and their correlations using correlation...
Amphibians in an urban environment: a case study from a central European city (Wrocław, Poland)
01. April 2020
Abstract In 2016, we studied the occurrence of amphibians in 231 selected ponds in the city of Wrocław (Lower Silesia, Poland) and confirmed the occurrence of 10 species: Bombina bombina, Bufo bufo, Bufotes viridis, Hyla arborea, Pelobates fuscus, Pelophylax esculentus complex, Rana arvalis, Rana temporaria, Lissotriton vulgaris and Triturus cristatus. Among all studied sites, the most common were P. esculentus complex (146 occupied sites, 63.2%) and B. bufo (119, 51.5%), while the rarest was P. fuscus (8, 3.5%). The number of species at a single site varied from 0 (28...
Where the wild things are! Do urban green spaces with greater avian biodiversity promote more positive emotions in humans?
01. April 2020
Abstract Urban green space can help mitigate the negative impacts of urban living and provide positive effects on citizens’ mood, health and well-being. Questions remain, however, as to whether all types of green space are equally beneficial, and if not, what landscape forms or key features optimise the desired benefits. For example, it has been cited that urban landscapes rich in wildlife (high biodiversity) may promote more positive emotions and enhance well-being. This research utilised a mobile phone App, employed to assess people’s emotions when they entered...
Multidimensional analysis of temporal and layered microclimatic behavior of subtropical climber green walls in summer
01. April 2020
Abstract Existing studies emphasizing the magnitude of green-wall thermal benefits paid little attention to temporal microclimatic behavior. To bridge the knowledge gap, we employed high-precision sensors to monitor the microclimate of two wirerope-type climber green walls and adjacent control bare walls in humid-subtropical Hong Kong. Sample days were systematically selected to represent the results on sunny, cloudy and rainy weather in summer. This study aimed at: (1) evaluating the magnitude and daily temporal occurrence of maximum temperature, cooling and insolation...
Design catalogue for eco-engineering of coastal artificial structures: a multifunctional approach for stakeholders and end-users
01. April 2020
Abstract Coastal urbanisation, energy extraction, food production, shipping and transportation have led to the global proliferation of artificial structures within the coastal and marine environments (sensu “ocean sprawl”), with subsequent loss of natural habitats and biodiversity. To mitigate and compensate impacts of ocean sprawl, the practice of eco-engineering of artificial structures has been developed over the past decade. Eco-engineering aims to create sustainable ecosystems that integrate human society with the natural environment for the benefit of both...
Do small cities affect bird assemblages? An evaluation from Patagonia
01. April 2020
Abstract Most studies about the impact of urbanization on bird assemblages are from the Northern Hemisphere and most previous research has reported that cities reduced bird species richness and favored the settlement of exotic bird species. However, most of these studies took place in large cities and few of them were focused on riparian environments. The aim of our study was to investigate how richness and abundance of riparian birds change along the urban-rural gradient of Esquel, a small city in Patagonia. We established two rural riparian sites upstream, two urban...
Ecological risk resonance of urbanization and its effect on geohazard disaster: the case of Freetown, Sierra Leone
01. April 2020
Abstract Land use changes associated with urbanization may increase ecological risk and subsequent geohazard risk. Africa is particularly vulnerable at preset as, since 2005, the highest rates of rapid urbanization-associated forest degradation have occurred there. On August 14, 2017, a compound geohazard in Freetown, Sierra Leone, caused thousands of fatalities and destroyed hundreds of houses. Land use change is considered the main factor contributing to geohazard initiation. Here, we use Freetown as a case study to quantitatively assess the magnitude of the increase in...
Size does matter: Passive sampling in urban parks of a regional bat assemblage
01. April 2020
Abstract We studied the occurrence of bats in urban parks in the city of Madrid (Spain), and the resulting patterns were compared with bat occurrence in the surrounding region. In this way, we addressed if the presence of individual species in the study parks was positively related to their regional occurrence and the way some geographical and environmental traits affected bat richness and composition in urban parks. We analysed urban parks varying in area, structure and distance to the edge of the town. During two years, bats occurring in parks were sampled using...
Genetic diversity and relatedness of a recently established population of eastern coyotes ( Canis latrans ) in New York City
01. April 2020
Abstract Little is known about the relatedness structure of carnivores living in urban areas, where green spaces may vary in size and resource availability. We examined the minimum population size, relatedness structure, and genetic diversity of a recently established population of eastern coyotes (Canis latrans) inhabiting New York City (NYC). The population has been established for approximately 25 years, and sample collection for genetic analysis has been ongoing since 2010. We genotyped 234 scat, eight tissue, and three blood samples at nine microsatellite loci. We...
The University of West Florida campus ecosystem study: gopher tortoise and longleaf pine populations in an urban interface
01. April 2020
Abstract College/university campuses comprise a distinct type of urban interface, with their generally expansive spatial pattern of alternating permanent structures, parking lots, and green spaces. The campus of the University of West Florida (UWF) in Pensacola, Florida, was constructed among second-growth longleaf pine stands recovering from extensive logging in the western-most extent of the Panhandle, with the original campus design deliberately carried out to maintain original contours and minimize tree removal. The extended campus includes a fire-excluded...
Analysis of the spread of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus in an urban area, using GIS techniques : a study case in Central Italy
01. April 2020
Abstract The spread of the red palm weevil is now a very severe problem on a global scale. In this paper, we investigate its spread during the 2007–2013 period in a coastal urban area characterized by a high density of palm trees, and discuss the application of a new approach to data collection and processing. While most works on the spread of the red palm weevil are based upon geo-referenced traps, we focused on the health of each palm, considering the surrounding territorial context. To this end, we used historical aerial photos, freely available remote sensing...
Minimal stories in Southeast Buenos Aires grasslands: carabid beetle biodiversity throughout an urban-rural gradient
01. April 2020
Abstract Urbanization modifies the original habitat and the biodiversity. Research throughout urban-rural gradients allows the monitoring of human activities on the biodiversity of native environments. Our aims were to a) record the diversity of edaphic coleopteran families and carabid species in native grassland remnants of urban, suburban and rural areas; b) identify potential taxa exclusively associated with urban and rural sites, respectively, or indifferent to such categorization; and c) compare the body sizes, wing morphology and trophic groups of carabid beetles...
The effects of urbanization on carnivores in the New York metropolitan area
01. April 2020
Abstract The presence of human activity and development affects the distribution and behavior of carnivore species in various ways. It is necessary to examine the effects of urbanization and associated habitat fragmentation on the spatial ecology of predators, in order to develop a comprehensive understanding and formulate a proactive approach towards biodiversity protection in such areas. In this study, we observed patterns of occurrence and activity of carnivores in four preserves in metropolitan the New York and New Jersey region. Over the course of a ten-month trail...
Oak, Quercus chenii , dispersal in fragmented urban forests: acorn horizontal and vertical dispersal, seedling establishment and growth
01. April 2020
Abstract Habitat fragmentation results in the loss of seed dispersers and subsequently leads to low regeneration and functional decline of forests. However, very few studies on disperser decline and seedling regeneration have been conducted in urban forest systems. In three isolated forest patches in Wuhan, central China, acorn dispersers, acorn dispersal, acorn deposition patterns in soil seed banks and seedling recruitment of the dominant animal-dispersed tree species (Quercus chenii) were investigated over four consecutive years (2014 to 2017). The hypothesis tested...
Mapping heat and traffic stress of urban park vegetation based on satellite imagery - A comparison of Bucharest, Romania and Leipzig, Germany
01. April 2020
Abstract Large and comparatively compact European cities such as Bucharest and Leipzig struggle with considerable urban heat island (UHI) effects characterized by heat and drought together with high concentrations of air pollutants (NO2, SO2, O3, CO2). However, a healthy urban green infrastructure is necessary to reduce the impacts of UHI on human health. Therefore, continuous monitoring schemes are required for green infrastructure in order to improve human life in such cities. Satellite remote sensing can provide the means for monitoring urban vegetation status. In...
Urban channel incision and stream flow subsidies have contrasting effects on the water status of riparian trees
01. April 2020
Abstract The water relations of riparian trees are often closely tied to stream hydrology and channel morphology, which can be altered by urban development. In regions with limited precipitation, urban water use can generate or augment dry-season stream flows, potentially providing a water subsidy to riparian trees. However, urbanization is also associated with high storm flows that cause stream channel incision, or downcutting, which could limit the effect of flow subsidies by lowering riparian water tables. We investigated the effects of urban dry-season flow...
If you plant it, they will come: quantifying attractiveness of exotic plants for winter-active flower visitors in community gardens
01. April 2020
Abstract Urban community gardens are potentially important sites for urban pollinator conservation because of their high density, diversity of flowering plants, and low pesticide use (relative to agricultural spaces). Selective planting of attractive crop plants is a simple and cost-effective strategy for attracting flower visitors to urban green spaces, however, there is limited empirical data about which plants are most attractive. Here, we identified key plant species that were important for supporting flower visitors using a network-based approach that combined...
City dwelling wild bees: how communal gardens promote species richness
01. April 2020
Abstract Urban areas consist of wide expanses of impervious surfaces which are known to negatively affect insect biodiversity in general, but green spaces within cities have the potential to provide necessary habitat and foraging resources. Although, communal gardens were primarily intended to provide fresh, regional food to denizens, these green islands also host a surprisingly high number of wild bee species. The gardens were characterized based on structural elements such as flower frequency, the relative percentage of lawn, trees, shrubs, planted...
The effects of traffic noise on tadpole behavior and development
01. April 2020
Abstract Traffic noise is known to negatively affect many wildlife species by interfering with foraging behavior. Frogs often lay their eggs in roadside ditches because they are predator-free, but it is possible that traffic noise could reduce the survival and fitness of tadpoles, creating an ecological trap. In a series of lab experiments, we tested whether traffic noise has a negative impact on tadpole feeding behavior, whether this is mediated by changes in tadpole activity, and whether there is any impact on tadpole growth rate or metamorphosis. Traffic noise...
Home gardening practice in Pune (India), the role of communities, urban environment and the contribution to urban sustainability
01. April 2020
Abstract Urban agriculture (UA) is regarded as an emerging tool and strategy for sustainable urban development as it addresses a wide array of environmental, economic and social objectives. Home gardening represents a common form of UA in the close living environments of urban dwellers that can be particularly important for rapidly growing cities and metropolitan regions in developing and transitional countries. However, a structured conceptual analysis of different urban sustainability benefits, including its operationalisation, is lacking. We therefore investigated...