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Urban Ecosystems 

Latest Results for Urban Ecosystems
The latest content available from Springer
Native plant gardens support more microbial diversity and higher relative abundance of potentially beneficial taxa compared to adjacent turf grass lawns
02. Februar 2023
Abstract With increased population growth and suburban sprawl, anthropogenic landscapes such as urban ecosystems are becoming increasingly abundant, with changes in land cover contributing to loss of biodiversity and ecosystem functions. As such, it is important to understand how land cover choices impact ecosystem services and functions within urban ecosystems. Turf grass lawns are the default landscape in North America, but recent efforts have focused on replacing lawns with native plant communities. Native plant communities within urban ecosystems increase abundance...
Monument protection as a limiting factor for large scale vertical greening system implementation to counteract indoor heat stress – a GIS-based analysis for Berlin, Germany
02. Februar 2023
Abstract Vertical greening systems (VGS), as proven strategy for adaptation to heat stress, are prohibited for monument-protected buildings and façades. To what extent monument protection effectively limits the implementation of VGS in heat stress affected city centers has not been quantified yet. In this study, the ratio of buildings under monument protection was quantified for Berlin, Germany, using a GIS analysis. It was then compared to a map of potential heat stress. This was done for the entire city and the inner-city area on block-scale...
Free-roaming dogs in Ushuaia City, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina. How many and why
31. Januar 2023
Abstract Free-roaming dogs (FRD) in cities represent an increasing problem. Authorities need numbers of FRD to evaluate policies implemented and to monitor the dog population. We estimated the number of FRD in Ushuaia city, Argentina, using a photographic capture-recapture methodology. We estimated an abundance index, the power to detect changes in the index, and modeled factors that may explain the spatial distribution of FRD and their welfare status. We also infer whether if they are represented by partially supervised or unsupervised dogs, using a...
Spatially explicit subpixel-based study on the expansion of impervious surfaces and its impacts on soil organic carbon
26. Januar 2023
Abstract Precise spatiotemporal datasets of impervious surfaces (IS) are essential for evaluating urbanization processes and associated soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics. However, spatially explicit studies on SOC stocks based on high-quality IS data remain deficient, which affects the accuracy of urban SOC budgets. In this study, we used 30-m Landsat images and a subpixel-based model to accurately evaluate and quantify the annual IS of Kaifeng, an ancient city in China that experienced intensive urbanization from 2000 to 2020. Soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics were...
Diversity of diurnal raptors in a suburban area of a city in southern Chile
25. Januar 2023
Abstract Raptor conservation programs should be based on knowledge of the birds’ ecology in both natural and urban habitats, justifying the inclusion of ecological studies in suburban zones into regional planning initiatives. The objective of this study was to determine the use of diurnal raptors within the habitats of a suburban area of a city in southern Chile. We characterize the different zones into five types of environment, and assess their raptor diversity for consideration in territorial planning. Acoustic surveys were conducted in auditory stations in addition...
Implications of wastewater discharges on environmental features and fish communities in an urban river
25. Januar 2023
Abstract Wastewater effluent discharges from treatment plants (WTP) are among the most pervasive stressors in urban rivers, however, their impact on the different levels of biological organization is poorly understood. This study examined the effects of wastewater effluent outflow on different trophic levels in an urban river and measured physicochemical features; bacterial, periphyton, and riparian forest composition; as well as the abundance, density, and biomass of freshwater fish at both pre- and post-WTP effluent discharge sites. Strong modification of the riparian...
The Joy of birds: the effect of rating for joy or counting garden bird species on wellbeing, anxiety, and nature connection
24. Januar 2023
Abstract The feeding of garden birds is a popular and accessible means of connecting with wildlife in urban environments in the United Kingdom. Past research has found that the main motivations for feeding birds are psychological benefits, concern for bird welfare, and connecting to nature. This study explores whether a brief birdwatching activity impacts on wellbeing, anxiety, and nature connection. One hundred and fifty-six participants took part in a birdwatching activity, identifying the species that entered their garden during a thirty-minute period. Participants...
Urban ecology and biological studies in Brazilian cities: a systematic review
24. Januar 2023
Abstract The number of papers focusing on ecological interactions in urban environments has increased in recent years. This review aimed to address the panorama of urban ecology and biological surveys in Brazil. A systematic search was carried out using the Web of Science and Scopus platforms for papers on urban ecology to understand which institutions, authors, themes, cities, biomes, states, and regions have addressed the theme in Brazil to date. A total of 932 articles were found, in 196 scientific journals. Most papers were published between 2010 and 2019. This...
Space–time analysis of the earth's surface temperature, surface urban heat island and urban hotspot: relationships with variation of the thermal field in Andalusia (Spain)
20. Januar 2023
Abstract Understanding just how the increase in the Earth's Surface Temperature (LST) is related to alterations of the urban climate —Surface Urban Heat Island (SUHI) or Urban Hotspots (UHS)— and with the deterioration of cities´ environmental quality has become a great challenge. Societies worldwide seek actions that might break these trends and improve the quality of life of local inhabitants in the face of climate change. In this research, and with the help of Sentinel 3 satellite images (day and night), the space–time variability of the LST and the SUHI over...
Snake life history traits and their association with urban habitat use in a tropical city
17. Januar 2023
Abstract Urbanisation changes landscapes, often simplifying and homogenising natural ecosystems while introducing novel environments. Although this transformation often adversely impacts native wildlife, generalist species that exhibit broad dietary and habitat requirements can persist and take advantage of urban environments. To understand which life history traits most influence the occurrence of a diverse snake assemblage in an urban environment, we leveraged a dataset of 5102 detection records for 12 snake species in the tropical city of Darwin, Australia. By building...
Urbanization and plant diversity influence different aspects of floral phenology
13. Januar 2023
Abstract Plant phenologies can shift as global temperatures rise and landscapes become human-dominated. Some of the most pronounced shifts in phenologies have been documented in urban areas, where surface temperatures can reach 5–7℃ warmer than surrounding rural areas. In this study, we examined how floral phenology—the initiation, peak, and duration of floral events — shifted in grasslands across an urbanization gradient in Louisville, Kentucky, a city with one of the most severe urban heat islands in the US. Our objectives were to understand (1) how urbanization...
Breeding performance is explained for coloniality and phenology but not for urbanization in a generalist raptor bird
05. Januar 2023
Abstract Urban sprawl is recognized to homogenize biota, with several species that fail to adapt to these new human scenarios. However, some species can live and breed successfully in urbanized habitats. We compared the breeding performance of the relatively common raptor and poorly studied, chimango caracara (Milvago chimango) in an urban gradient of central Argentina. Breeding data of 359 nests were collected during breeding seasons from 2010 to 2012. Birds nested in colonies of 3 – 75 pairs. Overall breeding success was 49.9% with productivity at 1 ± 1.14 chicks...
Topsoil Carbon Stocks in Urban Greenspaces of The Hague, the Netherlands
28. Dezember 2022
Abstract Urbanization influences soil carbon (C) stocks and flows, which, in turn, affect soil-derived ecosystem services. This paper explores soil C storage in urban greenspaces in the Dutch city of The Hague along a transect from the suburban seaside towards the city centre, reflecting a toposequence from dune to peaty inland soils. C storage and C mineralisation potential were evaluated in relation to soil type and greenspace categories. Several soil-quality characteristics were measured, including dissolved organic C, pH, electrical conductivity, nitrogen, phosphorus...
Field-testing effectiveness of window markers in reducing bird-window collisions
24. Dezember 2022
Abstract Bird-window collisions are a major source of human-caused mortality for which there are multiple mitigation and prevention options available. Despite growing availability of products designed to reduce collisions (e.g., glass with etched patterns or markers and films adhered over existing glass), few replicated field tests have been conducted to assess their effectiveness after installation on glass. We conducted a field study to evaluate the effectiveness of a commercially marketed product (Feather Friendly® markers) in reducing bird-window collisions at...
Mapping potential surpluses, deficits, and mismatches of ecosystem services supply and demand for urban areas
22. Dezember 2022
Abstract Land-use decision making in densely populated cities is challenged to cover the urban demand for water and food while maintaining the integrity of ecosystems that regulate the supply of these ecosystem services, beyond urban limits. Land-use decision making can be informed using spatial analysis of ecosystem services supply and demand, shedding light on potential mismatches, surpluses, deficits, and unsustainable uses of ecosystems. The integration of such analysis in land-use decision making, however, can be challenged by the complexity of the hierarchical and...
Estimates of wildlife species richness, occupancy, and habitat preference in a residential landscape in New York State
21. Dezember 2022
Abstract Despite the widespread adoption of motion-triggered camera traps, studies using camera traps to characterize wildlife communities in residential areas in North America are limited. To fill this data gap, we placed camera traps over three seasons in 22 residential neighborhoods within Dutchess County, NY. To account for imperfect detection, we applied individual-level and community-level Bayesian site-occupancy models to these data. Overall, we captured 64,639 independent detections over 17,820 camera trap days. We detected between 17 and 22 mammal and...
Spatial distribution and influencing factors of urban soil organic carbon stocks in Xi'an City, China
15. Dezember 2022
Abstract Urban soil organic carbon (SOC) plays an important role in urban ecosystem services. Rapid urbanization and anthropogenic disturbances have created complex and dynamic land-use patterns and heterogeneous urban landscapes, however, the impact of these patterns on the spatial distribution of soil organic carbon density (DSOC) remains unclear. This study investigated SOC using a spatial sampling method from 213 sites in Xi'an City Ring Expressway, China. The results showed that the DSOC ranged from 1.79 to 4.93 kg m−2, with a mean of 3.31 kg m−2, and the...
Breeding in the pandemic: short-term lockdown restrictions in a European capital city did not alter the life-history traits of two urban adapters
14. Dezember 2022
Abstract Humans are transforming natural habitats into managed urban green areas and impervious surfaces at an unprecedented pace. Yet the effects of human presence per se on animal life-history traits are rarely tested. This is particularly true in cities, where human presence is often indissociable from urbanisation itself. The onset of the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak, along with the resulting lockdown restrictions, offered a unique, “natural experiment” to investigate wildlife responses to a sudden reduction in human activity. We analysed four years of avian breeding data...
Probabilistic modeling of sustainable urban drainage systems
13. Dezember 2022
Abstract Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS) include strategies and solutions for distributed stormwater management and control. They are strongly encouraged, especially in highly urbanized areas that suffer the combined effect of impervious surfaces and the increase in extreme rainfall events due to urbanization growth and climate change. Their integration into traditional urban drainage systems can mitigate flood risk and pollution of receiving water bodies. The main goal of SUDS is to restore the natural water balance by increasing infiltration and...
Reproductive differences between urban and forest birds across the years: importance of environmental and weather parameters
07. Dezember 2022
Abstract Urban environments pose many challenges to wildlife, not least for insectivorous passerines. Numerous studies have reported on the negative effects of urbanization on reproduction in these species. However, depending on the taxa and cities studied, no particular or positive effects have been reported. This may be related to the different levels of urban environmental stressors. As unfavorable weather can have deleterious effects on birds (e.g. lower prey availability and higher costs of pollutants), annual variations in the differences observed between sites could...